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  1. Diagram Back

  2. Maximization of Ethanol Yield and Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Fruit Peels • Kara Newman Aman Mangalmurti • Soh Han Wei • Leong Qi Dong

  3. Problems • Dependence on fossil fuels leads to energy shortage • Bananas are being threatened by various diseases • Creation of organic fruit waste • Heavy metals in drinking water threaten well being of people, specifically in countries experiencing industrial growth

  4. Goals • Determine an order of filtration and ethanol production which maximizes the efficiency of fruit peels of bananas and mangoes • Determine which fruit peel, banana or mango, has better ion adsorption capabilities • Determine which fruit peel has a greater ethanol yield per amount of initial glucose

  5. Questions To Be Answered • Will adsorption of metal ions onto the fruit peel effect the ethanol yield of the fruit peel? • Vice Versa: Will initial ethanol production by the fruit peel effect the filtration capability of the fruit peel? • What protocol will maximize the efficiency of use of the fruit peel?

  6. Method Diagram • Compare different protocols (Protocol A & Protocol B) testing both ethanol production and adsorption capabilities of mangos vs bananas • Protocol A - Filtration then Ethanol Production • Protocol B - Ethanol Production then Filtration

  7. Experimental outline

  8. Procedure Ethanol Production • Growth of Z. mobilis • Immobilization of cells • Extraction of sugars from fruit peels • Determination of sugars in extracts • Ethanol fermentation by immobilized Z. mobilis cells • Determination of ethanol yield with the dichromate test Filtration • Adsorption of heavy metal ions • determination of final ion concentration with reagent kits

  9. Variables

  10. Progress So Far • Experimental Design has been constructed • A partial amount of the statistics has beenreviewed • Project has been separated for collaboration with HCI and AOS

  11. Data analysis The ethanol yield would be evaluate by comparing • µmol of ethanol per ml reducing sugar in fruit peels The heavy metal ion adsorption efficiency would be evaluated by comparing • The ratio of the final concentration of metal ion to the initial concentration • The % of heavy metal ions adsorbed

  12. Problems and Solutions • Original protocols for the project needed standardization for proper comparisons • Solution - Procedures were modified in order to be kept constant

  13. END/Sources

  14. Sources • Castro, R. Caetano, L. Ferreira, G. Padilha, P. Saeki, M. Zara, L. Martines, M. Castro, G. (2011). Banana Peel Applied to the Solid Phase Extraction of Copper and Lead from River Water: Preconcentration of Metal Ions with a Fruit Waste. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. Retrieved June 6, 2011, from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie101499e • Hossain, A.B.M.S. & Fazliny, A.R. (2010). Creation of alternative energy by bio‐ethanol production from pineapple waste and the usage of its properties for engine. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4(9), 813‐819. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/Pdf2010/4May/Hossain%20and%20Fazliny.pdf • Mishra, V., Balomajumder, C. & Agarwal, V.K. (2010). Biosorption of Zn(II) onto the surface of non‐living biomasses: a comparative study of adsorbent particle size and removal capacity of three different biomasses. Water Air Soil Pollution, 211, 489‐500. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/2028u2q551416871/fulltext.pdf • Tanaka, K., Hilary, Z.D. & Ishizaki, A. (1999). Investigation of the utility of pineapple juice and pineapple waste material as low‐cost substrate for ethanol fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 87(5), 642‐646. • Ban‐Koffi, L. & Han, Y.W. (1990). Alcohol production from pineapple waste. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6(3), 281‐284. • Reddy, L.V., Reddy, O.V.S. & Wee, Y.‐J. (2011). Production of ethanol from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CFTRI101. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(20), 4183‐4189. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2011/16May/Reddy%20et%20al.pdf • Isitua, C.C. & Ibeh, I.N. (2010). Novel method of wine production from banana (Musa acuminata) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) wastes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(44), 7521‐7524. • Nigam, J.N. (2000). Continuous ethanol production from pineapple cannery waste using immobilized yeast cells. Journal of Biotechnology, 80(2), 189‐193. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24553 immobilised in k‐carrageenan • Oberoi, H.S., Vadlani, P.V., Saida, L., Bansal, S., & Hughes, J.D. (2011). Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. Waste Management, 31(7), 1576-1584. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2011.02.007