650 likes | 802 Vues
Psychology. 8/21/13. Social Media. Debate Review Article Discussion. Article Review. Cover Page Running Head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER/SUMMARY Page # Title Author’s Name Institution . Summary. One page summarizing the article Must properly reference sources Last paragraph may add opinion.
E N D
Social Media • Debate Review • Article Discussion
Article Review • Cover Page • Running Head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER/SUMMARY Page # • Title • Author’s Name • Institution
Summary • One page summarizing the article • Must properly reference sources • Last paragraph may add opinion
Personality Test • http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp • Career Path • What type of personalities you work well with • What type of personality you are
Developing through a Lifetime.. 8/22/13
NEW WEBSITE! http://missmackley.wordpress.com/
Developing through a lifetime.. • Developmental Psychology • How people are continually developing – physically, cognitively, and socially – from infancy to geriatrics. • Physical, Cognitive, and Social changes through a lifetime
Centers of Research • Nature vs. Nurture : • How do genetic inheritance (nature) and experiences (nurture) influence our development?
Centers of Research • Continuity vs. Stages : • Is Development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Centers of Research • Stability vs. Change : • Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
Life before Birth • Conception: • Woman’s Ovary releases mature egg • 200 million + Sperm swim towards egg • 1 sperm is welcomed by the egg • Less than 24 hours and the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus fuse and become one nucleus.
Prenatal Development • Zygotes: a fertilized egg. • Cell Division • Differentiate -> Specialize in structure and function • Embryo: 2 weeks through 8 weeks • About day 10, zygote attaches to uterine wall
Prenatal Development • Fetus: 9 weeks into development • Placenta: formed as a zygote, transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus. • Screens out harmful substances • Teratogens: harmful agents such as viruses and drugs
Prenatal Development • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Alcohol predisposition • Birth Defects • Intellectual and Developmental disabilities • Misproportioned head and brain abnormalities • Depressed CNS
Newborn • Automatically equipped with responses to survival • Withdraw limbs to escape pain • Turn head side to side or swipe away cloth to breath if placed over face • Turn toward touch • Open mouth and rooting for nipple, suckling • Hunger = crying
Newborns • Prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responses • Turn heads toward human voices • Gaze at faces longer than a pattern • Prefer to look at objects that are 8-12 inches away
Infancy and Childhood • Infancy: The time when a baby grows from a newborn to toddler. • Childhood: The time from toddler to teenager. • Cognitive, brain and mind, develop together
Brain Development • In the Womb, developing brain forms nerve cells at nearly quarter-million per minute. • By birth, have most brain cells • Nervous system is still immature at birth • Branching neural networks begin • Birth • 3 months • 15 months
Brain Development • 3-6 years old = most rapid growth in the frontal lobes • Rational planning • Association Areas (last to develop) • Thinking • Memory • Language
Maturation • Orderly sequence of Biological growth processes. • Set the basic course for development; experience adjusts it. • Genetic growth tendencies are inborn
Motor Development • As the brain develops so will physical coordination. • Muscle and Nervous systems mature = more complicated skills emerge • Roll over before sitting unsupported • Crawl on all fours before they walk
Motor Development • USA Babies walking • 25% by age 11 months • 50% by 1 week after 1st birthday • 90% by age 15 months
Motor Development • Genes play role in motor development • Twins • Development of cerebellum at back of brain creates readiness to learn, experiences prior has limited effect • Potty Training
Memory • Infantile amnesia • Little memory prior to 3.5 years old • Age 4-5, remembered experiences
Cognitive Development • Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing remembering, and communicating. • Some where in your life you become Concious… • Jean Piaget
Piaget’s Theory • Children’s minds develop through a series of stages • Newborn.. Simple reflexes • Adult.. Abstract reasoning power • Schemas: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Piaget’s Theory • Assimilate: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. • Accommodate: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
Piaget’s Theory • Proposed 4 stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor Stage • Preoperational Stage • Concrete Operational Stage • Formal Operation Stage
Sensorimotor Stage • From birth – about 2 years of age. • Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. • Looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping • Lack of object permanence
Preoperational Stage • From age 2 up to ages 6 or 7 • Children learn to use language but do not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic • Lacks concept of conservation • Glass of Milk Demonstration • Theory of mind • People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perception, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict.
Egocentrism • The preoperational children’s difficulty taking another’s point of view. • Peek-a-boo • 2 year old thinks that they are “invisible”, if they can’t see other people. • Theory of mind • People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perception, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict.
Concrete Operational Stage • Ages 6 or 7 years old to 11 years old • Children gain the mental operationas that enable them to think logically about concrete events. • Fully gain the mental ability to comprehend mathematical transformationtions an conservations
Formal Operational Stage • By age 12 • Begin to think logically about abstract concepts. • If this, then that. • If john is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
Social Development • The brain, mind, and social-emotional behavior develop together • Stranger Anxiety – usually develops around 8 months
Attachment • An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Harlows’ Monkey Experiment • Attachment does not correlate with need for nourishment • Harlows’s monkey experiment • Body Contact • Critical period • Familiarity • Imprinting
Attachment • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_O60TYAIgC4
Basic Trust • A sense that the world is predictable and reliable. • “Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults” – Erik Erikson
Parenting Styles • Parenting research focusing on how and to what extent, parenting styles impact their children. • Authoritarian • Permissive • Authoritative
Authoritarian • Parents impose rules and expect obedience: “Don’t interrupt.” “why? .. Because I said so”
Permissive • Parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.
Authoritative • Parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. • Esp. in older children, encourage open discussion and allow some exceptions to rules.
Parenting • Too Hard • Too Soft • Just Right • Research supports • Highest self-esteem • Self-reliance • Social competence • Warm, concerning parents
Adolescence • The years spent morphing from child to adult. • Starts with physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status. • “storm and stress” • Looking back as a time most will not want to relive • Very care free time period
Physical Development • Begins with Puberty • The time when we sexually mature. • Surge of hormones • Primary Sex characteristics • Secondary Sex characteristics • Girls age 11 • Boys age 13
Physical Development • Brain Development • Growth of myelin • Fatty tissue that forms around axons and speeds up neurotransmissions. • Improved judgment, impulse control, and ability to plan long term. • Frontal Lobe Maturation lags the emotional limbic system. • Hormone surge and limbic system development • “heat of the moment”
Cognitive Development • Become capable of thinking about your thinking, and thinking about other peoples thinking, they begin imagining what other people are thing about them. • Cognitive abilities mature, think about what is ideally possible and compare that with the imperfect reality of their society, parents, self.
Reasoning Power • Early teen years, reasoning is self-focused. • “But mom, you really don’t understand!! I am in love!” • Gradually become capable of abstract reasoning • Which stage of Piaget theory? • Reason Hypothetically and Deduced consequences