Japan Land of the Rising Sun
Japan is an archipelago An archipelago is a chain of islands
Japan consists of four main islands • Hokkaido • Honshu • Shikoku • Kyushu There are also about 3,000 tiny islands
Japan lies on the “Ring of Fire” The ‘Ring of Fire” is caused by tectonic plate movement. It consists of a line of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. The area is also prone to earthquakes.
Shoguns Ruled Japan for 700 years by military force under feudal systems Demanded loyalty and service from daiymos (landowners) Rule typically passed to sons, but at times taken over by rivals, who established new family as shoguns Power of shoguns was weakened by Mongol invasions Tokugawa shoguns strengthened power of shoguns with strict rule American Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan to the West and weakened power of Tokugawa family Fifteenth Tokugawa, last shogun, gave up position to emperor
Samurai Served as soldiers of feudal Japan Being a samurai was a family tradition Loyalty & service owed to daiymos (landowners) and shogun Life & death power held over the people of Japan Live according to the Bushido, the code of the samurai Honor as important as sword Fought against Mongol invasion in 1274 & 1281 – were outnumbered by defeated invaders with help of the kamikaze (spirit wind)
Similarities Shoguns & Samurai both: Held power during the time of Japanese Feudalism Maintained military rule Power was ended by westernization
Ninja • The word itself derives from Japanese Shinobi-no-mono • The first character, nin, suggests concealment, while the second, sha, means person. • Ninja: a person who hides his presence • a person who does covert, military operations.
Myth & Movies Says • imply that they are a secret organization, fraternity, or clan, whose skills and knowledge have been passed down in secrecy from generation to generation • a ninja must: practice the art of concealment, engage in covert military operations, belong to a secret fraternity of ninja, wear black, and lots of it
Reality • History reveals ninjas of a sort operating in Japan during the 16th & 17th centuries • Ninja raids, attempted assassinations, reconnaisance missions were recorded in semi-historical documents such as the Hodo Godai-ki, a chronicle of the Hojo clan who once ruled Japan as regents to the shogun
Imperial Japan & World War II How was Japan changed by the events of World War II?
Start of the Pacific War • The Pacific War erupted when Japanese navy forces carried out a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. December 7, 1941 • Dec. 8, 1941 Japanese army forces secretly landed on the Malay Peninsula, which was under British control.
War in the Pacific • Turning Point • Battle of Coral Sea – first naval battle where the ships couldn’t see each other – fighting by aircraft • Battle of Midway Island – US gained advantage by code breakers – who had solved the Japanese code & had superior air power
Faced with the loss of most of their experienced pilots, the Japanese increased their use of kamikaze tactics in an attempt to create unacceptably high casualties for the Allies. The U.S. Navy proposed a total naval blockade and air raids.
Hiroshima • Industrial, military significance, minor supply & logistics base, communications center, storage point,& assembly area for troops. • several Japanese cities left deliberately untouched by American bombing, allowing a pristine environment to measure the damage caused by the atomic bomb • Hiroshima was the only targeted city without prisoner of war (POW) camps
What did Hiroshima look like before the bombing? • At the time of the attack the population was approximately 255,000. This figure is based on the registered population used by the Japanese in computing ration quantities, and the estimates of additional workers and troops who were brought into the city may be inaccurate.
During the war, raw materials and labor were diverted for military production. Supplies of food, clothing, and other necessities dwindled. Purchases were limited by coupons and rationing to ensure set amounts of critical supplies, but even that became difficult. In December 1940, a rice rationing system was implemented in Hiroshima, but by the end of the war in 1945, delayed and even canceled deliveries were common. Residents suffering extreme deprivation began cultivating school ground gardens and relying on black-market goods.
The evacuation of schoolchildren was actively promoted around Japan, spreading to Hiroshima in March 1945. The evacuation sites also suffered from acute food shortages, so the children's lives were extremely difficult.
Why Did the U.S. Develop the Bomb? • Inspired by scientists who feared atomic bomb development by Germany, the United States began studying the atomic bomb when World War II began in 1939. In August 1942 the U.S. launched a development program called the Manhattan Project. • The bomb was completed after enormous expenditure and successfully tested on July 16, 1945
1945, with Japan in an extremely weak position, the United States was considering the following ways of bringing the long war to an end: invade the Japanese mainland in November 1945 ask the Soviet Union to join the war against Japan assure continuation of the emperor system or use the atomic bomb.. Why Did the U.S. Decide to Drop the Bomb on Japan?
The Potsdam Declaration • July 26, 1945, Truman issued The Potsdam Declaration - an ultimatum - without a surrender Allies would attack Japan (atomic bomb was not mentioned) • July 28, 1945, declaration rejected • Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bombs - intention to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction, & instilling fear of further destruction
Taken 500 meters east of the hypocenter (7 August, 1945)Photo : Mitsugu Kishida
Doctors and nurses did all they could to provide treatment at hospitals and first-aid centers, but medical supplies were in critically short supply.
Several days after the A-bombing, thousands of children could be seen wandering alone or in groups through the burnt ruins of the city. Tens of thousands had been evacuated earlier and returned after the bombing to find that their guardians had perished. These "A-bomb orphans" were housed in camps, but many died from the effects of radiation or acute malnutrition.
460m from the hypocenter • Like Honkawa Elementary, this school was built of steel-reinforced concrete. Thus, the shell managed to survive. About 160 pupils and teachers were in the school at the time of the bombing, and nearly all died immediately due to the heat and blast. This building became a place of refuge and a relief station, and survivors wrote numerous messages on the wall in the stairwell telling their families of their condition and whereabouts. Part of the A-bombed school building have been preserved and reconstructed into a Peace Museum that opened in April 2002.
September 2,1945 U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Harbor Signed official agreement Japan was under control of occupation forces – General MacArthur Japanese Surrender
Japan After the War What challenges faced Japan after World War II?
US influence on the government • US desired Japan to become a nation that would: • Be able to govern democratically • Be peaceful with other countries • Wanted the militaristic colonial empire of Japan destroyed • Had to change the social, political and economic conditions that had existed before the war
What do you see as reoccurring themes/ phrases in the preface of the new Japanese constitution? Why would these be present in the constitution?
Preamble of the United States Constitution • We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
New Government of Japan • May 3, 1947 – new constitution was adopted • Emperor was no longer powerful – figurehead • Article 9 – Japan would never again be an aggressor in war • Can not use its land, sea or air forces to settle international disputes • April 28, 1952 – sovereign nation again (end of occupying forces)
Japan’s Government Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government
Japan’s Government • Emperor – does not have power but is a symbol of the state • Suffrage – right to vote • Age 20 to vote • Voting by secret ballot • Elect the members of the Diet • 47 prefectures – governed districts
Additional factors of rebuilding… • Much of Japan’s infrastructure was destroyed in the war • (Infratructure – consists of the public systems and services of a nation) • Transportation systems, industry and urban infrastructure had to be rebuilt • Destroyed by atomic bomb and bombing raids over other cities as well • A land reform program was put in place • Japan lost control of its overseas possessions • Labor unions were encouraged • Businesses that had encouraged the military were removed from power
Japanese Economy • Is one of the strongest in the world • Major exporter of Manufactured goods • Known for making HIGH quality products • Leaders in new technology & ideas • Imports – food & raw materials (lacks natural resources), also imports machinery, equipment & fuels • Has a favorable balance of trade & stable economic system
Japanese Economy • Trade Surplus from 1965 – exports more than it imports • brings in more money than it pays out • Used the $ to invest in foreign stocks, bonds, real estate, etc • Japanese companies produce more cars and electronics outside of Japan than in • Land & Labor are often cheaper in other countries than in Japan
Why is the Japanese economy so successful? • Government - works with businesses to control production – looking toward the future • Workforce – well educated, highly trained, & strong work ethic – work hard and are loyal to their companies • Work ethic – belief that the work itself is worthwhile • Trade Surplus – makes company wealthy • Tariff – a fee that a country charges on imports and exports
SIZE Japan is about equal in size to the state of Montana =
POPULATION Japan ranks seventh in world population with about 125 million people.
Population • 127 million people • High population density • 65% live in cities like Tokyo and Osaka • most live on island of Honshu • 90% of population is Japanese • Non-Japanese must register and carry identification
Language • Japanese books are read from “back” to “front” • use several types of alphabets: • Kanji • Hiragana • Katakana • English is taught in schools and often used in business