Environmental Science • Study of impact of humans on our environment • Includes problem solving environmental issues caused by humans • For example: Devising (creating) a plan to clean up a lake & make it healthy again
More Examples of Environmental Science • Measuring smog levels in cities • Studying loss of plant & animal species • Publishing results of research on fossil fuel consumption • NOT… Asking for peoples opinions regarding costs of various resources.
Fields of Study Contributing to Environmental Science • Biology • Earth Science • Physics • Chemistry • Social Studies
Loss of Biodiversity (Extinctions) • Is a concern because humans depend on organisms for food, oxygen, and many other products such as medicines
Biodiversity The number & variety of species that live in an area
Ecology • The study of how living things interact with each other & their nonliving environment • It does not include the influence of humans on the environment
Renewable Resource • Can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes • Examples: fresh water, air soil, trees, crops
Natural Resource • Can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes • Examples: fresh water, air soil, trees, crops
Nonrenewable Resource • Forms at a much slower rate than the rate at which it is consumed • Examples: Copper ore, petroleum (oil), diamonds,minerals
Sustainable World • Condition where human needs for health & wealth can be met indefinitely (forever)
Law of Supply & Demand • Describes the relationship between the availability & worth of resources • The greater the demand is for a product… the greater its value. • The lower the supply is for a product… the greater its value. • Example: If the supply of oil decreases, prices will increase
Hunter-Gatherers • Groups & tribes set fires to prairies in order to make hunting easier • Large mammals such as buffalo were overhunted • This culture still exists in South America & New Guinea
Agricultural Revolution • Humans shifted from hunting & gathering to domesticating plants & animals • Human populations boomed
Industrial Revolution • Shift from machines powered by water or muscle to those powered by fossil fuels • Improved Quality of Life • Resulted in Quick Growth of Large Cities • Contributed to pollution • Most of today’senvironmentalproblems beganduring this period
Tragedy of the Commons • Describes conflict between individuals & society • Common areas such as oceans are often overfished unless restrictions are put in place • This is because individuals fail to communicate & plan in order to balance their needs with those of society • Modern societies solve thisproblem by protecting sharedresources
Ecological Footprint • The productive area of earth needed to support one person in a particular country • Currently, the United States has the largest ecological footprint
Risk • The chance that something undesirable will take place • Example: For example, you could calculate the risk of an earthquake taking place in Illinois this year
Cost-Benefit Analysis • Possible solutions to environmental problems are judged by looking at both the positive & negative effects
Cost-Benefit Example… • If a nature preserve is built to protect an endangered bird… • Environmental controls would become less strict outside the preserve.
Cost-Benefit Example… • If we include a marsh within this nature preserve, it will protect our water resources. • This is an example of ‘ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE’.
Cost-Benefit Example… • When deciding whether or not to build a dam… • Jobs generated by the project is a positive economic outcome.
Erosion • Erosion can wear down rock & make it smoother. • It can also destroy coastlines, and remove valuable topsoil. • However, it CANNOT effect the tides.
The ozone layer • Layer of O3 gas that protects humans & mammals from harmful UV radiation… similar to sunscreen
Weather • Large-scale atmospheric phenomena caused by air that is constantly in motion
Conduction, Convection, Radiation… • All are mechanisms that transfer energy through or within Earth’s atmosphere
The HYDROSPHERE includes all of the water on or near Earth’s surface.
Almost all of the fresh water on Earth is frozen in the polar ice caps & glaciers