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Environmental Science: Unit 1 Notes Covering Chapters 1, 2, 3 PowerPoint Presentation
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Environmental Science: Unit 1 Notes Covering Chapters 1, 2, 3

Environmental Science: Unit 1 Notes Covering Chapters 1, 2, 3

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Environmental Science: Unit 1 Notes Covering Chapters 1, 2, 3

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  1. Environmental Science:Unit 1 Notes Covering Chapters 1, 2, 3

  2. Environmental Science • Study of impact of humans on our environment • Includes problem solving environmental issues caused by humans • For example: Devising (creating) a plan to clean up a lake & make it healthy again

  3. More Examples of Environmental Science • Measuring smog levels in cities • Studying loss of plant & animal species • Publishing results of research on fossil fuel consumption • NOT… Asking for peoples opinions regarding costs of various resources.

  4. Fields of Study Contributing to Environmental Science • Biology • Earth Science • Physics • Chemistry • Social Studies

  5. Loss of Biodiversity (Extinctions) • Is a concern because humans depend on organisms for food, oxygen, and many other products such as medicines

  6. Biodiversity The number & variety of species that live in an area

  7. Ecology • The study of how living things interact with each other & their nonliving environment • It does not include the influence of humans on the environment

  8. Renewable Resource • Can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes • Examples: fresh water, air soil, trees, crops

  9. Natural Resource • Can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes • Examples: fresh water, air soil, trees, crops

  10. Nonrenewable Resource • Forms at a much slower rate than the rate at which it is consumed • Examples: Copper ore, petroleum (oil), diamonds,minerals

  11. Sustainable World • Condition where human needs for health & wealth can be met indefinitely (forever)

  12. Law of Supply & Demand • Describes the relationship between the availability & worth of resources • The greater the demand is for a product… the greater its value. • The lower the supply is for a product… the greater its value. • Example: If the supply of oil decreases, prices will increase

  13. Hunter-Gatherers • Groups & tribes set fires to prairies in order to make hunting easier • Large mammals such as buffalo were overhunted • This culture still exists in South America & New Guinea

  14. Agricultural Revolution • Humans shifted from hunting & gathering to domesticating plants & animals • Human populations boomed

  15. Industrial Revolution • Shift from machines powered by water or muscle to those powered by fossil fuels • Improved Quality of Life • Resulted in Quick Growth of Large Cities • Contributed to pollution • Most of today’senvironmentalproblems beganduring this period

  16. Tragedy of the Commons • Describes conflict between individuals & society • Common areas such as oceans are often overfished unless restrictions are put in place • This is because individuals fail to communicate & plan in order to balance their needs with those of society • Modern societies solve thisproblem by protecting sharedresources

  17. Ecological Footprint • The productive area of earth needed to support one person in a particular country • Currently, the United States has the largest ecological footprint

  18. Risk • The chance that something undesirable will take place • Example: For example, you could calculate the risk of an earthquake taking place in Illinois this year

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis • Possible solutions to environmental problems are judged by looking at both the positive & negative effects

  20. Cost-Benefit Example… • If a nature preserve is built to protect an endangered bird… • Environmental controls would become less strict outside the preserve.

  21. Cost-Benefit Example… • If we include a marsh within this nature preserve, it will protect our water resources. • This is an example of ‘ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE’.

  22. Cost-Benefit Example… • When deciding whether or not to build a dam… • Jobs generated by the project is a positive economic outcome.

  23. Erosion • Erosion can wear down rock & make it smoother. • It can also destroy coastlines, and remove valuable topsoil. • However, it CANNOT effect the tides.

  24. Layers of the Atmosphere

  25. Where is the ozone layer?

  26. The ozone layer • Layer of O3 gas that protects humans & mammals from harmful UV radiation… similar to sunscreen

  27. Weather • Large-scale atmospheric phenomena caused by air that is constantly in motion

  28. Conduction, Convection, Radiation… • All are mechanisms that transfer energy through or within Earth’s atmosphere

  29. The air near Earth’s surface is more dense because of GRAVITY

  30. Without the Greenhouse Effect, Earth would be too cold to support life…

  31. The HYDROSPHERE includes all of the water on or near Earth’s surface.

  32. Almost all of the fresh water on Earth is frozen in the polar ice caps & glaciers

  33. ENERGY… Earth is an OPEN system

  34. MATTER… Earth is a CLOSED system