Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training An Exercise Prescription for Athletic Performance
Terminology • Muscular Strength • Muscular Power • Muscular Endurance • Muscular Speed • Muscular Flexibility • Muscular Hypertrophy • Muscular Atrophy
Adaptations to Resistance Training • Increased motor unit recruitment • Coordination of motor unit recruitment (synchronous) • Rate Coding: firing frequency of the motor units • Decreased autogenic inhibition • Decreased sensitivity of the golgi tendon organs to tension • may lead to injury
Adaptations to Resistance Training • Chronic Hypertrophy • more myofibrils, • actin • Myosin • sarcoplasm • connective tissue • Transient Hypertrophy • Due to increased blood flow to the muscles during exercise.
Adaptations to Resistance Training • Hyperplasia: muscle fiber splitting • requires heavy resistance training • requires many months of training
Adaptations to Resistance Training • Fiber type alterations • muscle fibers begin to take on certain characteristics of the opposite fiber type after opposing training occurs. • chronic stimulation of FT motor units with low frequency nerve stimulation transforms FT motor units into ST motor units within a matter of weeks! • extreme, prolonged training may produce skeletal muscle fiber type conversion.
Muscular Response to Resistance Training • Acute Muscle Soreness • accumulation of H+ • Lactate • tissue edema
Muscular Response to Resistance Training • Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness • caused by eccentric muscle contraction • muscle and connective tissue damage • inflammation (macrophages, white blood cells) • increased chemical mediators (bradykinin)
Muscle Soreness Prevention? • Stretch after exercise • Ice after exercise • Cool down after exercise • Gradual progression of exercise • Resistance • Repititions • Sets • Rest between exercise bouts
A Training Needs Analysis • Purpose of the resistance training • Major muscles used (sport specific) • Method of training (sport specific) • Energy systems used (sport specific) • Movement patterns (sport specific) • Injuries or deficiencies?
Designing Resistance Training Programs • Select mode of exercise • free weights, nautilus, etc. • Select the exercise movement • Select the order of exercises • Select number of sets/reps
Designing Resistance Training Programs • Periodization • hypertrophy • strength • power • speed • Select the resistance • strength • power • endurance • size
The Importance of Resistance Training • Males vs Females • Young vs Old • Athletes vs Nonathletes • Weight Reduction • Prevention of Heart Disease • Prevention of Osteoporosis • Prevention of Other Diseases