Economies of TRACTION DIESEL VS ELECTRIC • How Competitive are the Diesels ? • Is there a need for further Electrification in Indian Railways ?
Railway Electrification is justified on various Grounds • Modernization • Energy Efficiency • Depleting Oil Reserves • Savings in Foreign Exchange • Marginally Capital intensive, but much cheaper operationally • More Economical • Enables higher speeds and improved throughput • Higher hauling capability • Eco-friendly How true is the above ?
Electric Traction - 1881 After many decades of satisfactory performance, the steam engines were to give way to more modern locomotives. The year 1881 saw the birth of the first electric Railway run by a German Engineer Werner Van Siemens using both the rails to carry the current. Finding this a little too dangerous, Siemens soon adopted the overhead electric wires. Electric locomotives today raun on Rail roads in many countries.
Diesel Traction - 1912 The diesel engine was invented in the year 1893, by a young German Engineer, called Rudolf Diesel. But it was only nineteen years later, that the first Diesel locomotive came into existence. Since then, diesel traction has grown from strength to strength. Over 89,000 Diesel locomotives have been built in the world so far, the General Motors, USA alone contributing to as many as 56,000 Locomotives.
Superior Technology -Diesel or Electric ? Diesel Traction is thus a far more recent technology, as compared to Electric traction. One reason why there are more diesels in the world than electric locos and why more and more are produced year after year. Railways in Europe and some other advanced countries had started Electrification many years before the modern Diesels came on the scene. In fact, Railways in modern economies like US, Australia, etc. are de-electrifying including Suburban services.
Superior Technology -Diesel or Electric ? - (ii) Diesel locomotive is in fact an Electric Locomotive carrying its own powerhouse. Today’s modern Diesel locomotives with 6 KMs of Electrical wiring is much more Electric than an Electric locomotive with 4 KMs of wire. Electric locomotive provides an easy means of drawing larger units of power from the OHE for the same axle load. Development of Technology for Low weight energy efficient engine and its controls delayed the advent of modern diesel locomotives.
Superior Technology -Diesel or Electric ? - (iii) Today, technological development in both tractions has levelled of. Diesel locos with Electric transmission have all the benefits of modern technology such as AC-AC transmission. And for the same weight, Diesel traction has 10% or higher load hauling capability. It is conceded that technology of high speed Passenger operation beyond 220 Kmph has advanced on Electric traction, but this is perhaps quite irrelevant to us today.
World Railways - Status of Electrification Source : Rail Business Report, 1999
Electrification on IR It is often said that Electrification on IR is hardly 24.5% of total network. The truth is • Total Network includes BG, MG as well as NG and is 62759 KMs. • Actual BG Route Kilometers are 44383 • BG Running Track KMs are 62441 • Electrified Running Track KMs - 27946 • which is 44.8% of BG Running Track KMs.
World’s Stock of Mainline Locomotives Population of Diesel Locos in the World is 3.2 times that of the Electric locomotives (Source: World Bank Railway Database 2000)
Electrification on IR (ii) • Railway Electrification on the IR was taken up in a big way in the late 70s, as a knee jerk reaction to the 1974 oil crisis. • Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE) was created to speedily electrify the high density routes; this task has already been completed in the early 90s. While talking of 1980 Secretary’s report, we have blanked off Gujral Committee Recommendations and the falling crude prices in later years. • It is felt that Electrification of Low density non-viable and uneconomic routes continues unabated, perhaps to sustain the organisation. • Time has perhaps come, to pause and examine if the need for further electrification still persists.
Energy Efficiency • Sometimes Electric traction is perceived as more energy efficient, by wrongly computing the efficiency from the Overhead wire, in stead of from the Primary Source of Energy, viz., Coal / Oil (used in producing electricity in power houses) • The energy efficiency of Traction should however be calculated right from the Primary source of Power, taking into account, losses occurring at every stage. (For example, in production of Electricity in Power houses and Transmission and Distribution)
ENERGY EFFICIENCY (ii) ELECTRIC LOCO DIESEL LOCO Source :The Economics of Railway Traction by Dr. J. Majumdar (Mcgraw Hill & Co.)
Overall Efficiency 1. Fuel 2. Theoretical efficiency of Diesel Cycle (for a volumetric compression ratio of 1:16) 3. Boiler efficiency (in electric operation: efficiency of steam power plant) 4. Indicated efficiency 5. Mechanical efficiency of diesel engine (auxiliaries included) 6. Efficiency of power transmission to axles 7. Theoretical efficiency of cycle in electric operation 8. Indicated efficiency and mechanical and electrical efficiency of the entire turbo-a.c. converter (auxiliaries included) 9. Efficiency of power transmission from power plant to substation 10. Efficiency of converter and of power transmission from substation input to current collector, return current losses included 11.Electro-mechanical efficiency of locomotive at the driving wheels, allowing for feed-water heating to 100 deg. C by exhaust stem.
Energy Efficiency (iii) AUTHORITY : CEA Figures The table proves that Electric traction as energy efficient is a myth
Availability of Oil (Reserves) Will there be any Oil after 30 years ? ? ? • Ever since Col. Blake discovered oil in 1857, this is the usual pessimistic refrain that we hear. • Arthur Anderson/Cambridge Energy Research Associates reports: • In 1970, the reserves were estimated to last 33.78 years • In 1980, the estimate was 33 years despite increase in consumption by 30% • In 1999, oil reserves were estimate to last 43 years despite increase in consumption by 43%
Oil in India • India is the least explored region for oil Well density per 100 Sq. Km India 20 World 100 • In 1998, prognosticated hydrocarbon reserves in India were as high as 17 Billion tonnes that can last for 400 years at the consumption rate of 46 Million tonnes per year during that year. • India consumes 2% of World’s oil, while Indian Railway uses only 1.7% of India ‘s Oil. (Source : TERI Year Books)
Availability of Oil The Government is investing Rs.54 400 Crores in connecting the Golden Quadrilateral and diagonals by Super Highways. Almost every Automobile / Light Motor Vehicle Manufacturer continues to expand their production capacities.
Fuel Cells • A simple device uses Hydrogen from fuel combines with Oxygen and produces electricity. • No noise, no smoke and no moving parts • As per International Railway Journal of March 2000, Fuel Cell Trains shall be a reality by 2008. • A breakthrough has already been achieved by BHEL, Hydrabad • All Overhead wires will then become redundant !!! • Diesel locos can be easily converted by replacing engine with fuel cell.
Bio - Diesels • Renewable fuels from bio sources • include • Ethanol • Bio diesel • Bio hydrogen • Biogases As given by Dr.D.K.TULI, Chief Research Manager - IOC on 21-08-2002
Why Bio diesel is important for Railways ? • Indian Rail has very large available land • Bio diesel will help Railways to : • Improve upon emission norms • eventually reduce diesel cost • redeploy surplus manpower • contribute to environment protection
Importance of Bio diesel • Environment friendly • Clean burning • Renewable fuel • No engine modification • Increase in engine life • Biodegradable and non-toxic • Easy to handle and store
Bio diesel process at IOC (R & D) • Base Catalyzed transesterification of oil Raw Materials Used • Rice Bran Oil • Sun flower oil • Mohuva Oil • Rapeseed oil • Japtropha oil • Karanjia Oil Scale : 100 g to 60 Kg batch
The Indian Scene • Annual Growth rate -8% compared to world average of 2% • Oil pool deficit & subsidies Rs.16,000 Crores, Rs.18,440 Crores (1996-97) • Current per capital usage of petroleum is abysmally low (0.1 ton / year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia • Even Malaysia’s figure would be beyond our paying capacity • Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11 • Investment in Biofuels make strong Economic sense.
Jatropha may be the Answer • According to the Economic Survey (1995-96), Govt. of India, of the cultivable land area about 100-150 million hectares are classified as waste or degraded land • Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot, wild castor) thrives on any type of soil • Needs minimal inputs or management • Has no insect, pests & not browsed by cattle or sheep • Can survive long periods of drought • Propagation is easy • Yield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30 years • 25% oil from seeds by expelling 30% by solvent extraction • The meal after extraction an excellent organic manure (38% protein, N:P:K ration 2.7:1.2:1)
EU Initiatives on Biofuels • Regulatory package COM-2001 / 547 containing action plan and directives • 20% alternate fuels for gasoline and diesel by 2020 • Major options biofuels, natural gas and biohydrogen • Biofuels minimum 5.75% in 2010 • Member states can give tax benefits • Bio fuels to include Bio diesel, Bio ethanol, ETBE, Biogas. Objectives : • Reduce dependency on imported oil • Greenhouse gas reduction (8% Kyoto) • Support agricultural sector
Bio diesel Potential - Indian RailwaysAn estimate • Track length of 1,00,000 km • If 50% tract available and 50 meters of both sides • Approx. area 5000 sq..km • considering an yield of 2 tons / ha • Yield of oil crop 1 MMTPA • Approx. Bio diesel potential 200-250,000 tones i.e. about 10% of the Railways’ diesel requirements Indian Oil as Partner in technology development The Railway Minister said that Railway Ministry and Indian Oil Corporation signed a memorandum of understanding for a pilot project for production of eco-friendly biodiesel for the Railways. Courtesy : The Hindu dt. 13th Feb.2003
Every Diesel Loco of 4000 HP put on line adds to the Power Generation Capacity of the country by 3 MW • Every Electric Loco of 6000 HP put on line • Eats into the Power generation capacity by about 4 to 5 MW * • Deprives 15000 Houses of Electric Power • Adds to use of inefficient small DG sets by Industrial, Agricultural & Domestic sectors * Taking into account the Locomotive, Transmission and Distribution Losses.
Electrify the Railways and Dieselise the Industry ?? • In a country where 14.7% villages are yet to be electrified, can we afford to electrify Railways ? • The Energy Policy should ideally aim at replacing inefficient use of Fuel • Electrification replaces a highly efficient Turbo charged Railway Diesel locomotive with small sized high inefficient gen-sets resulting in higher consumption of HSD and pollution.
Anticipated Drains from the Power production in future years, even with no further Electrification.
Optimum Utilisation of Energy - Petroleum • There is a lot of reluctance in the States for establishing any new coal-based Power Plants in view of the serious limitations like poor quality of coal with high ash and sulphur content, pollution of ash and dust, high cost of developing new coal fields, extreme shortage of water, etc,. • Most of the Power houses set up in the country in the last five years and those in the pipe line are based on Petroleum products such as LNG, Diesel, Naptha, etc.
Does Electrification save Foreign Exchange ? • Electrification ends up draining the Foreign exchange, instead of saving it. • The classic case is Ernakulam - Trivandrum Electrification at Minus 29% rate of return, tapping Power from a Diesel Power station of Nallalam. • Capital investment in Power plants is mostly by way of imported equipment.
To Sum up, It is quite obvious that Electrification of Railways is leading to: Dieselisation of the Industry, Agriculture and Domestic Sector Increased Fossil Fuel Consumption and not Reduction Higher Outflow of Foreign Exchange and not savings for the Nation
Is Electric Traction only marginally Capital intensive ? The Nation pays dearly by spending our scarce Capital to create this vast infrastructure and to sustain it. On the Diesel traction, a modest engine is all that we require.
Breakeven was given a Go By since no sections on IR in 1996 qualified for Electrification on 49 GMT basis and the CORE was facing a closure. • If ROR should only be the criterion, can we de-electrify the low density routes already electrified ? • If Oil prices come down, as it did from $36 in 1979 to $9 in 1998, can we attempt de-electrification of the entire country based on ROR ?