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Inexcusable Absence: Overcoming Exclusion in Girls’ Education

Inexcusable Absence: Overcoming Exclusion in Girls’ Education

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Inexcusable Absence: Overcoming Exclusion in Girls’ Education

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  1. Inexcusable Absence: Overcoming Exclusion in Girls’ Education Marlaine Lockheed Center for Global Development CIES Gender Symposium, 2007

  2. Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  3. Schooling trends are improving in the developing world • Girls’ schooling has traditionally lagged that of boys, but girls are catching up • Socially excluded children still lag • Socially excluded girls are the least likely to go to school • Countries with many socially excluded groups are at risk Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  4. Gender parity in primary enrollments rose between 1960 and 2000 Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  5. But 60 million primary school age girls were out of school in 2000 Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  6. Most out-of-school girls come from socially excluded groups Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  7. Who are the socially excluded groups? • Stigmatization • Ethnic differences • Low status • “Involuntary” minority status Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  8. Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  9. Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  10. Laos: Hill tribe girls complete fewest years of school 10 Urban-Male-Lao-Tai Urban-Female-Lao-Tai Rural-Male-Lao-Tai Rural-Female-Lao-Tai 9 8 7 6 Average years of schooling 5 4 3 2 1 0 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 Age Rural-Male-Other Rural female- Other Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  11. Laos: Hill tribe girls complete fewest years of school 10 Urban-Male-Lao-Tai Urban-Female-Lao-Tai Rural-Male-Lao-Tai Rural-Female-Lao-Tai 9 8 7 6 Average years of schooling 5 4 3 2 1 0 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 Age Rural-Male-Other Rural female- Other Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  12. Guatemala: Indigenous girls in are least likely to be enrolled in school Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  13. Guatemala: Indigenous girls in are least likely to be enrolled in school Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  14. Gaps in enrollment, attainment or completion for excluded girls • Nigeria • 35% lower probability • Pakistan • 30-55 percentage points lower • Slovak Republic • 45 percentage points lower Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  15. Heterogeneity and male-female differences in primary school completion rates Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  16. The Challenge: Getting and keeping disadvantaged children in school • In all countries disadvantaged children lag behind in school, and girls do so disproportionately: • Enrollment • Completion/Graduation • Performance • But, excluded girls go to school, stay in school and do better than boys when given the opportunity Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  17. Quechua girls outperform Quechua boys in 5th grade, Peru 2000 Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  18. Indigenous girls outperform indigenous boys in Ecuador Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  19. Why does heterogeneity have this effect? • Discrimination in the labor market • Reduces motivation • Discrimination in access to school • Increases direct, indirect and opportunity costs of schooling to families • Lowers school quality • Discrimination within schools • Reduces opportunity to learn • Expectations and “stereotype threat” • Lowers performance Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

  20. Success is possible, with targeted interventions • Examples from developed countries • New Zealand, Canada • Examples from developing countries • Chile, Bangladesh, India Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006