Theme 1: Surprise Endings “The Gift of the Magi” “The Lady, or the Tiger”
Literary Terms • Irony
Irony • Discrepancy between what is expected and what happens.
Verbal Irony • When a speaker says one thing but means another (similar to sarcasm) • When a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect
Dramatic Irony • Listener or audience understand words or actions that the speaker or character does not • Adds suspense or humor
Senator Palpatine = Evil 4,5,6 (old Star Wars) 1,2,3 (new Star Wars)
Situational Irony • When the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect
Tone • Author or speaker’s viewpoint of a subject • An author uses denotation & connotation to develop tone in writing. • Denotation: Literal meaning of a word • Connotation: Associated meaning of a word (often positive or negative)
Connotation: Positive or Negative? • Self-confident / conceited • Stubborn / firm • Hard-working / workaholic • Casual / sloppy • Used car / pre-owned car • Warm crackling of a fire / scalding smoke of a fire
Characterization • Methods used to reveal the personality of a character
Types of Characters • Static character: does not undergo any important change from the beginning to the end of the story • Dynamic character: undergoes a change in attitude, circumstance, or values
Methods of Characterization • Direct characterization – makes direct statements about character’s personality • Indirect characterization – reveals a character’s personality though: • Character’s words • Character’s actions • What other characters think about character • What other characters say about character
Theme 2: Suspense! “The Most Dangerous Game” “The Cask of Amontillado”
Foil • Literally, a “leaf” of bright metal placed under a jewel to increase its brilliance • Foil: • A character whose personality or attitude is opposite that of another character • Through this contrast one character highlights the characteristics of the other character
Symbol • Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings. • For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. • A symbol may be said to embody an idea.
Universal Symbols • Embody universally recognizable meanings wherever used • Ex: light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc.,
Constructed Symbols • Are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work,
Symbolism in “Red Death” • The color red • The ebony clock • The mysterious guest
Mood • The emotional quality or atmosphere of a story • Can suggest a specific emotion or quality of setting • Created by descriptive language, figures of speech, word choice
Mood • How would you describe the mood of “The Cask of Amontillado” • How does Poe create this mood?
Foreshadowing • Author’s use of clues to prepare readers for events that will happen later in the story
Foreshadowing • When did Poe use foreshadowing in the story?
Suspense • A feeling of curiosity, uncertainty, or even dread about what is going to happen next. • Writes increase suspense by giving readers clues as to what might happen.
Suspense • How does Poe create suspense in his story?
Theme 3: Imagination “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” “Gaston”
Figurative Language • Used to convey something other than the literal meaning of their words • Enriches our experience while reading
Hyperbole • “If I had a nickel for every time I told you that, I’d be a millionaire.” • “Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson
Similes and Metaphors • Compare two unlike objects • Comparison implies a shared quality
Simile • Compares two unlike things using “like” or “as” • Examples: • His face was as red as a tomato. • Compared items: • Shared quality: • The sprinter was like a racecar. • Compared items: • Shared quality:
Metaphor • Compares two unlike things without using “like” or as” • Examples: • The thief was a tiger, ready to pounce. • Compared items: • Shared quality: • The giant’s footsteps were thunder as he walked. • Compared items: • Shared quality:
Personification • Giving nonhuman or inanimate objects the qualities associated with humans or living creatures. • Examples: • The clock frowned at me as I dashed out the door. • Human or living quality: • The puppies played and giggled with one another. • Human or living quality:
Imagery • Language that specifically appeals to one or more of the five sense. • Sight • Sound • Smell • Taste • Touch
Onomatopoeia • Word that imitates or suggests the sound it describes • Buzz • Achoo • Pocketa-pocketa
Melodrama • Sensational plot • Exaggerated emotions