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Assess the extent of political, economic and social change since the death of Mao Zedong. PowerPoint Presentation
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Assess the extent of political, economic and social change since the death of Mao Zedong.

Assess the extent of political, economic and social change since the death of Mao Zedong.

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Assess the extent of political, economic and social change since the death of Mao Zedong.

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  1. Assess the extent of political, economic and social change since the death of Mao Zedong.

  2. The Last Years of Mao1969-1976 During this presentation we will cover; • What were the three major power groupings in China during this period? • Why was there a constant struggle for power at this time? • Why did Lin Biao fall from power? • Why did Deng rise and fall in power during this period? • Why was Hua Guafeng appointed successor to Mao?

  3. Who were the three major power groupings in China during this period? • Mao very unwell – reliance on drugs • Factionalism • Lin Biao and the PLA • Jiang Qing and the Shanghai radicals (The Gang of Four) • Zhou Enlai and the bureaucracy

  4. Lin Biao and the PLA • Exerted enormous influence • Mao – “The whole country should learn from the PLA” • Role models and defenders of the nation • 9th Party Congress (1969) – Lin the heir apparent

  5. Jiang Qing and the Gang of Four • With Mao and Kang Sheng the driving force behind the Cultural Revolution – the Cultural Revolution Group • Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen – 1969 - on the Politburo • Power from Red Guards • 1970 – given control over propaganda • Power struggle with Lin Biao

  6. Zhou Enlai and the Bureaucracy • State Premier • The great survivor and pragmatist • Opposite to Jiang Qing • Very popular with the people

  7. Why did Lin Biao fall from power? • Mao grows concerned – “The PLA should learn from the whole country.” • By 1970 Mao saw Lin as the “Chinese Bonaparte” • March 1970 – Mao and Lin argue over abolition post of State Chairman • Chen Boda joined with Lin – attacked Zhang – factionalism • 1970-71 Mao “throwing stones, mixing in sand and digging up the cornerstone.”

  8. Why did Lin Biao fall from power? • Lin and his son begin to plan a coup • To assassinate Mao and Zhang and seize power • Sept 1971 – crisis point • Lin’s plane crashes in Mongolia • Lin is “a renegade and a traitor” • “Criticise Lin and Confucius”

  9. Impact of the fall of Lin Biao • PLA purged – although still important • Mao bed-ridden for 2 months • Mao’s reputation suffered • Mao no longer seen as infallible • No obvious successor to Mao - factional rivalry • 1972 – 73 brief return to more pragmatic policies under Zhou – not ultra-leftism

  10. Why was there a power struggle in the leadership 1973-6? • By August 1973 Mao has swung left again • Lin was a revisionist who “adopted a Left appearance to disguise his Right essence.” • Left now dominate Politburo and media • Wang Hongwen an ally of the Gang of 4 • Deng Xiaoping brought back by Zhou to add balance and experience – but ...

  11. Why was there a power struggle in the leadership 1973-6? • 1973 – Jiang Qing launches the anti-Confucius campaign. • Really anti-Zhou (and Deng) • Said his policies on education, economy and foreign powers were against legacy of Cultural Revolution • Zhang Tieshen • “Learn from Dazhai” • By 1975 clear to Mao that this is a factional battle. Supports Zhou. Wang discredited as future successor.

  12. The Rise and Fall of Deng • 1975 – Mao very ill, Zhou dying of cancer, Jiang and Gang of 4 irritating. • Deng rises quickly – by 1975 has political control of the PLA, bureaucracy and on Politburo • Adopts pragmatic policies in industry, economy and army • Oct-Nov 1975 Gang of 4 attack Deng for pragmatism and abandoning class struggle and Cultural Revolution • Mao withdraws his support for Deng

  13. The Rise and Fall of Deng • Jan 1976 – Zhou dies • 1 million people line the route of funeral procession • Gang of 4 suppress reports and issue article saying Zhou was a “capitalist roader” • Protest across China • 2 million attend Festival of The Dead in Tiananmen Square to honour Zhou at Heroes Monument • Becomes a protest against Jiang and Mao • Police break it up violently • Deng blamed for this “counter revolutionary incident”. He goes into hiding

  14. Why was Hua Guofeng appointed as successor to Mao? • Born 1921 • Was on Long March and fought Japanese • Neutral during the power struggle • Replaced Zhou as Premier of China on his death

  15. Mao dies • 21 Sept 1976 Mao dies • Hua becomes Head of State, Party and PLA • Hua uses the PLA to help him arrest the Gang of 4 (They had been plotting against him)

  16. Homework • Read Stewart chapter 12 and take notes on this topic • Draw up a balance sheet of Mao’s rule, showing the positive achievements alongside the failures and costs of his policies – for further discussion on Thursday