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Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

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Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

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  1. Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development Don Hartmann Spring 2006 Lecture 17c: Social Cognition-Identity

  2. Administration Exam time changed: Inasmuch as no one objected to the schedule change for Exam II, it is herby changed to Friday, March 24th; Wednesday, March 22nd will be used as an in-class review for the exam. The review scheduled for Thursday, March 23rd is cancelled. I noted when I sent the PowerPoint presentation for the 1st panel to the WEB master that the presentation contained 49 slides—a few of which were administrative in nature. Please note that I don’t believe that my lectures ever contain more than 15 content slides. Check it out! 49

  3. WEB Discussion Topic #23 III. A. Achievement Experiences. CSI. Summary/evaluation due on Tuesday, March 14th. Describe an achievement experience in your life that you think importantly determined your future achievement experiences/how you felt about achievement. Relate you experience to a theory or conception discussed in the text. Also feel free to comment on the contributions by other discussants.

  4. WEB Discussion Topic #24 III. B. Handling failure. Psyched. Summary/evaluation due on Wednesday, March 15th. Think of a failure experience that you have witnessed, either as an observer or as a victim, that may not have been handled very well. Describe the experience, how it was handled and with what consequences (e.g., emotions), why you think that it was not handled well, and how you think it should have been handled and why? Feel free to comment on the experiences, etc. of others.

  5. WEB Discussion Topic #25 III. C. Forging an identity. Agrrrression. Summary/evaluation due on Thursday, March 16th. Is forging a personal identity the painful process that Erikson made it out to be? Why or why not? What were your experiences with identity formation? What would you do differently from your parents in helping your children with identity issues? Feel free to discuss others’ commentary.

  6. WEB Discussion Assignments & Due Dates WEB Assignment # Group I II III IV CSI 02/03 (02/03) 02/24 (02/24) 03/14 Growing Pain 02/06 (02/06) 02/27 !x?&#X Where is Summary? Psyched 02/07 (02/07) 02/28 (02/27) 03/15 Agrrrression 02/08 (02/07) 03/01 (03/01) 03/16 Authoritarians02/09 (02/08) 03/02 Divas 02/10 (02/10) 03/03 Peer Pressure 02/13 (02/13) 03/06 Morally Distinguishe 02/14 (02/22) 03/08 Raging Hormones 02/15 (02/15) 03/09 Bono 02/16 (02/16) 03/10 Girlie 02/19 (02/24) 03/13 Note: Each discussion topic closes at 5:00 p.m. two days prior to the stated due data. Note: I will disband any WEB discussion group that is more than 5 days late in completing an assigned summary!

  7. Panel Discussion Schedule Wednesday… Feb. 29th: Identity (Murquia et al.) Mar. 08th:Gender (Marcus et al.) Mar. 29th: Bullying (Borski et al.) Apr. 05nd: Child Abuse (Kyle et al.) Apr. 12th : Parenting styles & discipline (Vrabel et al.) Apr. 19th : Peer and family relations (Talebreza et al.) ----- Note: Let’s get those question marks resolved!

  8. Handout WEB Date Date 21. Lect. #9: Piaget ----- 01/25 22. Lect. 10: Peers I ----- 01/27 23. Study Guide #4 ----- 01/30 24. Study Guide #5 ----- 02/03 25. Lect. #12: Peers II ----- 02/03 ----- 26. Lect. #13a: Emotions (with notes) ----- 02/08 27. Lect. #14: Emotions & School ----- 02/10 27. Study Guide #6 ----- 02/13 28. Lect. #15: Atttachment I ----- 02/14 29. Lect. #16a: Attachment II (Mat. Empl.) ----- 02/16 30. Lect. #16b: Attachment II (Day Care) ----- 02/21 31. Lect. #17a: Social Cognition—Self ----- 02/23 32. Study Guide #7 ----- 02/23 33. Quiz I Essay Answer Key ----- 02/24 34. Lect. 17b: l SC: Self-esteem ----- 02/27 35. Lect. Supplement: Theory of Mind ----- 03/02 ----- *Handout date refers to the date the handout was distributed in class. WEB date indicates the date the handout should have been included on the class WEB site. A dashed line indicates that the handout either was not distributed in class or was not placed on the WEB. Handout Summary

  9. Overview: Identity • Test Overlap: Pp. 181-185 • Lecture • Erickson's theory • James Marcia: 4 modes of resolution: Identity • ‑‑diffusion • ‑‑foreclosure • ‑‑moratorium • ‑‑achievement • Research outcomes on classification • ‑‑Personal characteristics • ‑‑Developmental trends • ‑‑Prerequisites • ‑‑Family correlates • Next: Lect. #18: Achievement

  10. Supplementary References Erickson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton. Marcia, J. (1980). Ego identity development. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.

  11. Moratorium or Foreclosure?

  12. Identity clearly important topic in adolescence Some theorists (e.g., Erickson) have essentially equated issues of identity with adolescence! Introduction

  13. Erickson • Identity represents the fifth stage in Erikson's 8 stages of the life cycles • From Erickson’s Identity: Youth and crisis: The evidence in young lives of the search for something and somebody to be true to can be seen in a variety of pursuits more or less sanctioned by society. It is often hidden in a bewildering combination of shifting devotion and sudden perversity, sometimes more devotedly perverse, sometimes more perversely devoted. Yet in all youth’s seeming shiftiness, a seeking after some durability in change can be detected…

  14. From Erickson’s Identity: Youth and crisis (continued) This search is easily misunderstood, and often it is only dimly perceived by the individual himself, because youth, always set to grasp both diversity in principle and principle in diversity, must often test extremes before setting on a considered course. These extremes, particularly in times of ideological confusion and widespread marginality of identity, may include not only rebellious but also deviant, delinquent, and self-destructive tendencies. However, all of this can be in the nature of a moratorium, a period of delay in which to test the rock bottom of some truth before committing the powers of the mind and body to a segment of the existing (or a coming) order (1968, p. 235-36).

  15. More on Erickson’s Notions • Adolescents can experiment with various roles and senses of self trying them out or on, and seeing which ones they (and their peers) like. • Identity involves a variety of aspects: gender, sexual, occupational, political, religious, moral, etc. • identity concerns do not begin, nor end, with adolescence. But they are pivotal during that period • As a result of this experimentation (of their identity crisis ‑‑ yes, that is where it comes from), a new sense of self is consolidated. • The adolescent who does not resolve this crisis of identity enters a phase of identity confusion—resulting in either isolation, or loosing one's identity in the crowd.

  16. James Marcia From Marcia’s “Ego identity development,” 1980: Although some identity crises are cataclysmic and totally preoccupying, identity formation usually proceeds in a much more gradual and unconscious way. It gets done by bits and pieces…The decisions may seem trivial at the time: whom to date, whether or not to break up, having intercourse…Each of these decisions has identity-forming implications. The decisions and the bases on which one decides begin to form themselves into a more or less consistent core or structure. Ob course, there are ways in which one can circumvent the decision-making process: one can let previously incorporated, parentally based values determine one’s actions; one can permit oneself to be pushed one way or the other by external pressures; or one can become mired in indecision. (pp. 60-61).

  17. Thanks to Mary Ross

  18. Marcia Operationalization of Erickson’s Notions Marcia: identified crisis and commitment as the major variables leading to a state of identity. These two factors generated his four‑fold classification of statuses, or modes of resolution, in Erickson's theory: identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement

  19. Marcia’s 2 X 2 Classification Committment Present Absent Crises (Exploration) Absent Present

  20. Items from the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 1. I haven’t chosen the occupation I really want to get into, and I’m just working at what is available until something better comes along. 2. When it comes to religion I just haven’t found anything that appeals and I don’t really feel the need to look. 3. My ideas about men’s and women’s roles are identical to my parents’. What has worked for them will obviously work for me. 4. There’s no single “life style” which appeals to me more than another. 5. There are a lot of different kinds of people. I’m still exploring the many possibilities to find the right kind of friends for me. 6. I sometimes join in recreational activities when asked, but I rarely try anything on my own. … 63. I date only people my parents would approve of. 64. My folks have always had their own political and moral beliefs about issues like abortion and mercy killing and I’ve always gone along accepting what they have. For more information, see

  21. What the 4 statuses look like • Diffusion:I haven't chosen the occupation I really want to get into, but I'm working toward becoming a _____ until something better comes along. When it comes to religion, I just haven't found any that I'm really into myself. • Foreclosure:I guess I'm pretty much like my folks when it comes to politics. I follow what they do in terms of voting and such. I've never really questioned my religion. If it's right for my parents, it must be right for me. • Moratorium: I just can't decide how capable I am as a person and what jobs I'll be right for. There are so many different political parties and ideals, I can't decide which to follow until I figure it all out. • IdentityAchievement: A person's faith is unique to each individual. I've considered and reconsidered it myself and know what I can believe.

  22. Rounding out the picture: Diffusion • Deal with existential anxiety with involvement in immediate, right now sensation • More feelings of inferiority, alienation, and ambivalence; poorer self‑concept; less clear sex‑role identification. • In general, less mature in cognitive complexity, emotional development, and general social development • Less cooperative, more manipulative and deceptive. • Associate with other uncommitted kids. • Least likely to have intimate, long‑term relationships. • Perceives parents as rejecting; youth and mother both describe the other as unaffectionate

  23. Rounding out the picture: Foreclosure • More use of denial and repression. • Quiet, orderly, and industrious lifestyle. Endorse authoritarian values (obedience, strong leadership and respect for authority). • Often come from warm and affectionate homes, and the kids continue to be dependent upon their parents. • Constricted personalities, rigid in their commitments. See Adams’ quote: • "are relatively immature in their social‑behavior styles, one perceives them as frozen in their developmental progression, rigid in their overcompliance, and generally unadaptive."

  24. Rounding out the picture: Moratorium • The most anxious, and exploratory. Lack well‑defined goals and values; self‑conscious. • Appear to be comfortable with others, and are generally socially adept and effective. • Feelings of guilt and difficulty in maintaining dignity are common ‑‑ seem torn. • High perceived companionship, physical affection, and support of parents. • Parents perceive child as independent.

  25. Rounding out the picture: Identity Achievement • A harmonious balance between individuation and social needs for relatedness. • Self‑confidence, security, social adeptness, emotional maturity, advanced ego development. • More intimate and long‑term relationships. • High perceived companionship, physical affection, and support of parents. • Parental perceptions of high levels of independence.

  26. Criticisms of Marcia’s Approach • Marcia has oversimplified Erickson's notion • Many faucets to identity: gender, ideology, religion, occupational, etc. (See list, pp. 179-180.) When individuals are assigned to one of the four cells in the table, all the domains are typically not considered. • The age of assessment is obviously important. If people are changing ‑‑ more are becoming identity achieved ‑‑ it is obviously important to choose a critical age when one ascertains parent‑child relationship history information.

  27. Summary of Identity • Introduction • Erickson's theory • James Marcia: 4 modes of resolution: Identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, & achievement • Research outcomes on modes of resolution • Next: Lect. #18: Achievement • Go in Peace