Steviarebaudiana (AsteraceaeorCompositae). Nativeto Paraguay & neighboringBrazilian border. Leavescontaintheglycosidestevioside, which tastes300timessweeter than sucrose. Commercial production -inParaguay, Brazil, Indonesia,Japan,China andThailand.
Thailand exports 50-80 tons of dried Stevialeaves /month. Stevia is used as a weight loss aid; fortreating diabetes, for lowering uric acidlevels, high blood pressure andheartburn, for preventing pregnancy, for increasing the+ strength of the muscle contractions that pump blood fromthe heart.
Thaumatococcus - monotypicgenus of tropical • floweringplant.Marantaceae
1 speciesThaumatococcusdanielli, -a naturalsource of thaumatin, intenselysweet protein used in thedevelopment of sweeteners(1973-TurkishJournal of Biology). • Large, rhizomatous, floweringherbnativetotherainforests of Ghana & surroundingAfricannations. • A gene fromThaumatococcusdaniellii has beeninsertedinto a cucumberplanttoincreaseitsperceivedsweetness in humaneatersbytheWarsawUniversity of Life Sciences.
Leaves & seedshavenumber of traditional medicinaluses. Interest inthis natural sweetner(nocarbohydrate) hasreawakened; as manysynthetic sweeteners, especiallycyclamates are carcinogenic. Alarmingincrease of diabetic people, special emphasisand importance neededby botanists, pharmaceuticalbotanists& agronomistsformass scale cultivation.
Myrtle (Myrtuscommunis –Murt, Hambalis)(Myrtaceae) evergreen, Mediterranean, growsspontaneously in manycountries. • InSummerwhiteflowers, andblueberries - allveryfragrant. Berriesedible. • Traditionallyused as an antiseptic, disinfectantdrugandhypoglycaemic(kan şeker düşüklüğü)agent .
Leaves, berriesandtwigsused in theflavouring of food, leaves as tea (Diabetes). Leavesused in themaking of colognesor skin tonics. Aromaticwaterdistilledfromleaves & flowers (France) .
Oil plants As food stuffs, oils importantinthe energy supply of humans. Plant oils contain phospholipids & sterols in additionto vitamin A, E & provitaminD2, allimportantfor health. Fromancienttimes:Oilshavebeen & are used insoapmaking, in painting, as lubricatingmaterials; as detergents, softeners etc.
Importantoils : soya, palm oil, sunflower, rapeseed, groundnut, cotton seed, coconut, olive, linseed, castor maize oilhazelnut More than 50% of vegetable oil produced inthe world comes from soybeans (1/2 USA).
Soybean (US) or SoyaBean (UK)(Glycine max)- legume native to East Asia (US-35%, Brazil-27%,Argentina -19%), China -6%) & India-4%). Widely grownfor its edible beans+ soy vegetable oil withnumerous uses. Produce significantly moreprotein per ha than most otheruses of land. Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal a cheapsource of proteinfor animal feeds + manyprepackagedmeals.
Traditional nonfermented food ofsoybeansincludes soy milk. Fermented foods - soysauce, fermented beanpaste. Soybean products like textured or texturized vegetableprotein (TVP) or TSP (textured soyprotein), are ingredients in many meat & dairyanalogues. (TVP or TSP (soy meat, or soya chunks)-adefatted soy flourproduct, by-product of extracting soybean oil).
Firstrecordsof olive cultivation are from Create- archaeological evidence dates from 3500B.C. Oliveoil usedby Egyptians & Greeks toanoint bodies + asmedicine. Fruits& oilusedin theconstruction of pyramids. Longershelf life -subtle flavorhas increasedtheuse.
A high-fatfood (about 80-85% of thecalories in olivescomefromfat), almostthree-quarters of fat is oleicacid, a monounsaturatedfattyacid. • Intraditionalherbalmedicineolivesandoliveleaveshaveoftenbeenused in treatment of allergy-relatedinflammation.
Olivebenefitshavebeendemonstratedforthecardiovascularsystem, respiratorysystem, nervoussystem, musculoskeletalsystem, immunesystem, inflammatorysystem, digestivesystem, as antioxidantand anti-inflammatorynutrient. • Highmonounsaturatedfatcontent of olives has beenassociatedwithreduced risk of cardiovasculardisease.
Anti-CancerBenefitsHydroxytyrosol, an olivephytonutrient - longlinkedtocancerprevention, nowregarded as havingthepotentialtohelp us prevent bone loss as well, decreases risk of osteoporosis. • Oliveextractshavenowbeenshowntofunction as anti-histamines at a cellularlevelbyblockingspecialhistaminereceptors (called H1 receptors), uniquecomponents in oliveextractsmayhelptolessen a cell'shistamineresponse.
Oleicacidfound in olives—onceabsorbedupintothe body andtransportedtoourcells—can changesignalingpatterns at a cellmembranelevel (specifically, altering G-protein associatedcascades). • Thesechanges at a cellmembranelevelresult in decreasedbloodpressure.
Oleaeuropaeawidelydistributed • Oleaeuropaeassp. europaea (MediterraneanBasin) • Oleaeuropaeassp. cuspidata (from South Africathroughout East Africa, Arabiato South West China) • Oleaeuropaeassp. guanchica (Canaries) • Oleaeuropaeassp. cerasiformis (Madeira) • Oleaeuropaeassp. maroccana (Morocco) • Oleaeuropaeassp. laperrinei (Algeria, Sudan, Niger)
Humanuse of oilpalmsdatesbackto 5,000 years- discovered in a tomb at Abydosdatingback to 3,000 BCE. Palm oil -high level of saturation. An ediblevegetableoilderivedfromthefruit of primarilytheAfricanoilpalm(Elaeisguineensis), to a lesserextentfromtheAmericanoilpalm ElaeisoleiferaandthemaripapalmAttaleamaripa.
Palmoilbecame a highlysought-aftercommodity byBritishtraders, foruse as an industriallubricant formachineryduringBritain'sIndustrialRevolution. Palmoilformedthebasis of soapproducts, such as LeverBrothers‘ (nowUnilever)"Sunlight"soap, andthe AmericanPalmolivebrand. Byaround 1870, palmoilconstitutedtheprimaryexport of some West Africancountriessuch as GhanaandNigeriaalthough thiswasovertakenbycocoa in the 1880s.
Indonesiaproducesmorepalmoil, but in 2012, Malaysiawasworld's 2nd largest producerwith 18.79 milliontonnes of crudepalmoil on ± 5,000,000 ha of land & exported 18 milliontonnes. China, Pakistan, theEuropeanUnion, Indiaand US primaryimporters of Malaysianpalmoilproducts. As of 2012, theannualrevenuereceivedbyIndonesia +Malaysiatogether, top producers, - 40 billion US $.
Usedtoproducebiodiesel, known as palmoilmethyl ester, • throughtransesterification(exchanging of an ester with an alcohol) • World'slargestpalmoilbiodieselplantopened in Singapore • in 2011. • Organicwastematterconvertedintopellets -used as a biofuel.
Palmoil is obtainedfromthefruit of theoilpalmtree. • Palmoil is usedforpreventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, braindisease, aging; andtreatingmalaria, highbloodpressure, highcholesterol, andcyanidepoisoning. • Palmoil is usedforweightlossandincreasingthebody’smetabolism.
As food, palmoil is usedforfrying. • Industrially, palmoil is usedformanufacturingcosmetics, soaps, toothpaste, waxes, lubricants, andink. • Palmoil, madefromthefruit of theoilpalmtree (Elaeisguineensis), is one of themostwidelyproducedediblefats in theworld. • Theoilpalmyieldstwotypes of oil: One is extractedfromtheflesh of thefruit (palmoil), andtheotherfromtheseed, orkernel (palmkerneloil).
Palmoil, palmkerneloil, andcoconutoil — theso-calledtropicaloilsarehigh in saturatedfat- longbeenlinkedtoheartdisease. Saturatedfatboosts “bad” LDL cholesterolandtriglycerides, both of whichare risk factorsforheartdisease. • Palmoil is 50% saturated, has a morefavorablefattyacidcompositionthanpalmkerneloilandcoconutoil, whicharemorethan 85% saturated. • Coconutoil, accordingtorecentreports, is thelatestfoodcure-all.
Theremainingdistribution of theSumatran orangutan in Indonesia. A map of worldpalmoiloutput, 2006. InBorneo , Indonesia, theforest (F), is beingreplacedbyoilpalmplantations (G). Thesechangesareirreversibleforallpracticalpurposes (H).
RECREATIONAL SERVICES,AESTHETIC BEAUTY,INTELLECTUAL & SPIRITUAL STIMULATION
Coconut oil - highly saturated,used in • South India,Sri Lanka & Aseancountries. • Edibleoilextractedfromthekernelormeat of • maturedcoconuts. • Manyhealthorganizationsadviseagainsttheconsumption of • highamounts of coconutoil. • Variousapplications in food, medicineandindustry. (Cocosnucifera).
Claimsaboundthatcoconutoil is a healthfoodthat can cureeverythingfrompoorimmunefunction,thyroiddisease, andheartdisease, toobesity, cancer, and HIV. • Purevirgincoconutoil, containing no hydrogenation (theprocess of addinghydrogentomake a liquidfat hard), contains 92% saturatedfat -- thehighestamount of saturatedfat of anyfat. • "Coconutoil is betterthanbutterand trans fats but not as good as liquidvegetableoils.
Corylus has 14–18 species. • Corylusavellana-Commonhazel, Europeandwestern AsiaCoryluscolurna— • Turkishhazel, southeasternEurope , AsiaMinor
Tradition of useforCorylusavellana • Chronicbronchitis, Sclerosis. • Usedmainly as a complementaryremedy as it improves& reinforcestheeffectiveness of otherremedies. • Has a gentleactionon allmetabolisms, exceptforglucosides.
Throughitsanti-scleroticaction, it can alsobe effective in casesof necrosisof theextremities, certaincases of arthritisand in casesof neurovegetativeimbalance. • Thisremedy is indicatedforconditionssuchas headaches, anemia, neurosis, emphysema, pulmonaryfibrosis, asthmawithemphysema, chronicbronchitis, dyspepsia, cirrhosis, hepatic deficiencies, sclerosis, smoker'scoughwith blood in thesputum.
GEMMOTHERAPY a therapeuticmethod, inspiredbytheprinciples of homeopathicdrainage, usingextracts of freshbuds, shoots, rootsorstemsderivedfromthedevelopingormaturingplants: • AcuteAsthma, Asthma, Bronchitis, CigaretteCoughs, Cirrhosis, Coughs, Emphysema, HepaticDysfunction, MentalIllness, PulmonaryFibrosis, RespiratoryTractDisturbances, Sclerosis, SupportforSymptomsDuetoSmoking, Bone Fractures, CalciumDeficiencySyndrome,CalciumDeposits, Decalcification, DentalIrritationsHealing of Bones, Intellectual/ MentalExhaustion, Osteomalacia, ParathyroidFunctionSupport, PorousBones, Rhinopharyngitis, Rickets, Supportfor Bone Growth, Tonsillitis
Gums: Cyamopsistetragonolobus;partused: endosperm; in hyper-lipidemia, obesity, diabetesmellitus. • Known as guargum, guarflour, gucran, Indianclusterbeanorjaguar gum. • A whitetoyellowishpowder -soluble in hot H2O, partially in cold H2O. • Has polysaccharides, mainly galactomannans, of highmolecularweight. • Approved as foodadditive.
Caesalpiniaspinosa-shrubortree (Leguminosae). (Tara tree). • Tara gumorPeruviancarob, -a naturaladditive, obtainedbygrindingtheendosperm of theseeds. • Fruit a reddishpodwith 4-7 largeroundblackseedshavingendosperm (22% bywt.), germ (40%) andhull (38%). • Nativetothe Peru andBolivia-trees at 3,000 metersasl- toleratedryclimates, poorsoils - harvestedbyhandandtypically sun dried.
An unusualelastic latex put to an entirely differentuse ischicle, harvested from Mamilkanazapota(Sapotaceae) Basefor chewing gum. Chicozapoteimportantfruittree in India, Mexico,othertropics. Over 23 000 ha of land in India is devotedtoproduction of the fruit, a 10-foldincrease in 20 years.
PistacialentiscusMasticGumAgainstHelicobacterpylori • Pistacialentiscus, -familyAnacardiaceae, withstrongcharacteristic aroma andgreenleaves-in manyMediterraneancountries.
Ripecarobpodscontain a largeamount of condensedtannins (16-20% of dryweight). Feedingtrialsshowedthatcarobpulpcontains only1-2% digestible protein and is relativelylow in metabolizableenergy. Infoodvalue, carobpodsaresimilartomostcerealgrains. • Yet anothersource is theCarobseed.
The protein has a lowdigestibilitybecause it is boundwithtanninsandfibre. Condensedtanninsaccountforgrowth-depressingeffects on animals fed with a diethigh in carob meal. Somebelievethatthiseffect is duetoitslowenergycontentforwhichanimals can compensatebyincreasingconsumption.
Constituents of theseedare (byweight): coat (30-33%), endosperm (42-46%) & embryoorgerm (23-25%). • Seedcoatcontainsantioxidants. • Endosperm is thegalactomannan (carobbeangum -CBG)---polysaccharidemoleculecomposed of mannose & galactosesugarunitsrathersimilartoguargum & tara gum.
Averagecomposition of thecarobpulp Constituent % Total sugars 48-56 Sucrose 32-38 Glucose 05-06 Fructose 05-07 Pinitol 05-07 Condensedtannins 18-20 Non-starchpolysaccharides 18 Ash 02-03 Fat 0.2-0.6