The American Civil War1861-1865 SS8H6: The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
Writing Prompt Topic • What were at least four reasons why the southern states seceded from the Union? • In one paragraph, please indicate what the four issues/reasons were and explain why each of them led to secession from 1860-1861. • You may refer back to your notes, worksheets, and homework for facts to include in your paragraph.
Ironclads Ironclads patrolled rivers in the South.
Name__________________ Date___________________ Period_________________ Significant Battles of the Civil WarGraphic Organizer
Fort Sumter, South Carolina • The Confederate soldiers fired the 1st shots of the Civil War at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.
Leaders at the Battle of Fort Sumter General Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (CSA) Major Robert Anderson (Union)
Battle of Bull Run: Manassas, Virginia • 1st major battle between the Union vs. Confederates
Leaders at the Battle of Bull Run General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate) General Irvin McDowell (Union)
Battle of Antietam: Sharpsburg, Maryland • September 17, 1862-This was the bloodiest 1-day battle of the Civil War. • This battle lasted 12 hours with 23,000 soldiers either killed, wounded, & missing. Leaders
Leaders at the Battle of Antietam General George McClellan (Union) General Robert E. Lee (CSA)
Emancipation Proclamation • On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. • It stated that unless the Confederate States of America (CSA) surrendered by January 1, 1863, “all slaves in states or districts in rebellion against the USA will be thenceforth and forever free.”
Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • Huge turning point of the war, because Robert E. Lee and his troop’s attempt to invade the north (Union) was destroyed. • The Confederates retreated back to Virginia. • From July 1-3, 1863, 51,000 soldiers were either killed or injured. Leaders
Leaders of the Battle of Gettysburg General George Meade (Union) General Robert E. Lee (CSA)
Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia • On September 19-20, 1863, the Confederates were able to defeat the Union and pushed them back into Tennessee. Leaders
Leaders of the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia General Braxton Bragg (CSA) General William Rosecrans (Union)
Battle of Chattanooga: Chattanooga, Tennessee • Continuation of the Battle of Chickamauga (GA)
Leaders of the Battle of Chattooga General Ulysses S. Grant (Union) General Braxton Bragg (CSA) General William T. Sherman (Union)
Atlanta Campaign • General William T. Sherman’s plan was to march through Georgia, take Atlanta, and leave a path of destruction to Savannah. • Beginning on July 20, 1864, General Sherman burned and tore up the city of Atlanta for almost 40 days. • By September 2, 1864 the Union troops had captured and destroyed Atlanta.
Sherman’s March to Sea • Field Order No. 120 was issued by Sherman ordering Union troops to “live off the land”. • They would gather food from fields and take livestock for food. • Also, troops were supposed to collect food, horses, & mules. • They were not allowed to enter homes of civilians to steal…Of course, the troops did not follow that rule.
Sherman’s March to Sea • Sherman waged Total War on the South (destroy anything useful to the enemy). • His troops destroyed railroad tracks, crops, burned homes and businesses. • Sherman divided his troops into 2 groups and they advanced towards Savannah going different directions. • After fighting many battles along the way, Sherman’s troops captured Savannah on December 21, 1864.
Andersonville • The largest military prison of the Confederate army during the Civil War • Located near Andersonville, Georgia • 52,300 Union soldiers were detained there between February 1864 and April 1865 • More than 13,200 died from disease, exposure, and lack of medicines. • After the war, the commander of the camp, Captain Henry Wirz, was convicted and hanged for the maltreatment and death of Union POWs. He was the only Confederate official to be executed.