Population Dynamics, Population Policies and the Reduction of PovertyPresented by Paulette Bynoe, PhD Caribbean Forum on Population, Migration and DevelopmentGeorgetown, Guyana 9-10 July 2013
Aims of Presentation • To emphasise the nexus between population dynamics and the reduction of poverty; • To highlight some achievements (of Guyana) in respect of the Cairo Programme of Action (1994); and • To make recommendations to bridge perceived gaps in the process of policy-making.
Implications • Lack of formal education= lower paying jobs =reinforcement of underground economy=limited capacity to be mainstreamed into formal economy • Remittances through informal means; delinquent labour market efforts, especially among youths • Deportees are not fully integrated into the society: this may lead to establishment of new criminal enterprise ideas
Implications • Internal migration =population pressures for housing, public services such as health, and education, and social facilities; environmental stress. • Brain drain/High human capital flight: limited skills for research and development. • Population structure: large working age population= increased unemployment among youth (e.g. in Guyana in 2006:12% nationally; youth of working age =36% • Increased number of adolescent mothers lack of education and the impact on communities and nation.
Recommendations to Bridge Gaps • Need for a population policy to promote social development. Human beings are at the centre of sustainable development. • Embrace a more participatory process of decision making for genuine sustainable development (educate to inform; then consult) • Greater investment in human resource development (knowledge and skills): re-tooling persons to respond effectively to new and emerging challenges and to be absorbed into local economy. Bridge the gap.
Recommendations to bridge Gaps • Further reduce regional imbalances (skewed development) associated with resource allocation to stem the flow of migrants from rural to urban or urban to urban areas for example through Regional Investment Policy (e.g. infrastructure) to address problems in lagging regions. • Address issue of spatial location of population, vulnerability to natural and human-induced hazards in the context of poverty reduction, as a disaster exacerbates poverty.
Recommendations to bridge Gaps • Greater integrated planning among sectors and institutions (horizontal and vertical) • Integrate sustainability issues with development in ‘upstream’ decision making, using Strategic Environmental Assessments to ensure harmonious balance between environmental protection, social equity and economic growth is maintained. • Enforce policy regarding education to school drop outs (boys and girls) due to teenage pregnancy etc. to combat unemployment problem and to reduce problem of underground economy
Recommendations to bridge Gaps • Create viable and attractive opportunities in rural areas with the aim to re-directing educational systems towards the needs of rural development. • Policies should be informed by a comprehensive situational analysis (evidence based) as well as a multi-disciplinary and coherent approach. We cannot continue to operate in silos and ‘intellectual compartments’.
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