State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Commercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program For more information call Albert Faure at (907) 465-5279 Created and updated by DEC on October 13, 2006
Cruise Ship Tourism Growth Passengers Outnumber Us 930,000
Approximately 1.2 million people (passengers & crew) visit SE Alaska with population of 75,000
Why Focus On Cruise Ships? Cruise ships share marine environment with * Commercial Fisheries (Alaska’s #1 private employer) * Subsistence Users
Ballast Water • USCG mandatory reporting program for vessels over 300 gross tons effective 6/14/04. • Requires ballast exchange from vessels entering the 200 nautical mile Economic Exclusions Zone (EEZ). • Cruise ships traveling within the EEZ do not have to exchange ballast but they must report. • DEC regulates non-segregated ballast water from oil tankers in Valdez. Segregated ballast tanks are not regulated. • ADF&G is evaluating invasive species protection.
Bilge Water • USCG lead agency • Oil content must be <15 ppm to discharge
GRAY AND BLACK WATER Federal Legislation Introduced by Senator Frank Murkowski to regulate large ship wastewater discharges. Law Title XIV -- “Certain Alaskan Cruise Ship Operations” passed 12/21/00, Regulations 33 CFR 159, Subpart E were effective July 26, 2001. Administered by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). State Legislation Special legislative session. Alaska Statute (AS) 46.03.460-.490 effective July 2001. Regulations 18 AAC 69 effective November 15, 2002. Administered by the Department of Environmental Conservation’s Commercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program.
Quick Comparison Federal Law and State Law Standards Sewage treatment standards commonly use fecal coliform.
Skagway Juneau Ketchikan Donut Hole Federal Legislation closed “Donut Holes.” “Donut Holes” wereareas within the Inside Passage where discharge of untreated sewage was allowed. Untreated sewage discharged from Large ships is prohibited since December 2000.
US Coast Guard • Administers Federal Law • Certifies vessels that meet more stringent standards to discharge continuously (including in port) • Requires two samples per month to keep certification
State Law Created theCommercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program CPVEC requires: • Annual registration • Program fees • Wastewater sampling by industry • Ship record keeping of wastes • Enforcement of standards • State verification by taking additional samples or auditing the industry samples
The program established by Alaska Statute (AS) 46.03.460 - .490 covers Graywater Blackwater Visible Emissions Solid Waste Hazardous Waste It does not cover Bilge Ballast Sludge Commercial Passenger Vessel Environmental Compliance Program
Discharging Options in Alaska Waters Three Discharge Options • Standard Terms and Conditions • Effluent must be less than: • 150 mg/l of total suspended solids (TSS) • 200 fecal coliform colonies/ 100 ml (FC) • Alternative Terms and Conditions [AS 46.03.462(a-c)] • For vessels that can’t comply with option 1, ADEC approves alternative terms and conditions that: • provide equivalent environmental protection; • grant additional time necessary to make agreed upon changes to the vessel to meet the standard terms and conditions; • test experimental technology that has a reasonable likelihood of success in providing increased environmental protection; Continued on next slide
Discharging Options in Alaska Waters continued 3. Alternative Terms and Conditions[46.03.462(e)]-Best Management Practices (BMP) • The BMP plan option became available through amendments to the CPVEC program law in 2004 (House Bill 522) • Best Management Practices Plan • Small ship owners or operators can apply for alternative terms and conditions by operating under a Department-approved BMP plan • The idea of the BMP plan is to protect the environment to the maximum extent possible under a plan that is enforceable.
Alternative Terms and Conditions- Best Management Practices Option Requirements Owner or operator must submit: • An ADEC form that includes: • vessel name • contact information • date the vessel keel was laid. • Certification that the vessel can’t practically comply with standard terms and conditions • A BMP Plan
BMP A BMP must include a plan that protects the environment to the maximum extent possible Common BMP practices: • Limiting wastewater discharges while the vessel is stationary or in port. (i.e. holding water in port). • Discharge only while vessel > one nautical mile from shore and traveling at a speed > 6 knots. • Vessels that can’t hold water: • can minimize gray water production by limiting usage of washers, dishwashers, etc. while in port. • Train crew to limit their usage of water while in port.
CPVEC Sampling Program • Applies to vessels discharging in AK waters (<3 Nautical miles from shore and includes Inside Passage and Prince William Sound) • Twice per season • QAQC Plan • ADEC/USCG • 3rd party sampling • QA blind, duplicates, audits
Wastewater NOVs(Notice of Violation) • None issued in 2001 or 2003. • 2002-one issued to Holland America Line - Ryndam August 2002 • 2004- one issued to New World Ship Management-Yorktown Clipper • 2005- one issued to American West Steamboat Co- Empress of the North • Used GIS to check 2001 discharge locations. • Presently either ship discharges “continuously” or outside State jurisdiction.
Marine Vessel Visible Emissions not new with 2001 legislation!!
Air Emission from Cruise Ships • The CPVEC program monitors emission from cruise ships and ferries. Since the summer of 2000, 250 opacity readings per year has been the target for large cruise ships in Southeast and Southcentral Alaska. • Ambient air quality was monitored in downtown Juneau in 2000 and 2001. Pollutant levels were found to be far below federal and state health based standards.
Science Advisory Panel Created in January 2001. Group of voluntary, independent scientists and engineers who study impacts of cruise ship wastewater. Authored “Impact of Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge on Alaska Waters” in November 2002.
Panel Recommendations • Improved sampling and additional audits of passenger vessels. • Determine water movement and exchange. • Continued evaluation of small passenger vessels. • Policies to encourage small cruise ships to discharge wastewater while underway. • Policies to prevent over-chlorination.
Science Panel Recommendation to Protect Sensitive Areas • Avoid stationary discharges • No discharge within 0.5 nautical miles of shellfish beds • Ships pose no more risk than Alaska Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
More Science Panel Findings • Bacteria, Nutrients and Sediments from large ships do NOT pose a threat due to dilution and advanced treatment systems.
Additional Studiesall available on State of Alaska, DEC website http://www.state.ak.us/dec/water/index.htm • Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing • Small ship risk screen and modeling • Report to Governor January 26, 2004 • Science Panel’s work (Report available online http://www.state.ak.us/dec/water/cruise_ships/pdfs/impactofcruiseship.pdf)
Large Ship Risk Characterization • The wastewater samples indicate that hazardous chemicals are not being discharged through these wastewater systems. • Large ship effluents met all Alaska Water Quality (WQ) Standards in the receiving water during underway discharge for pollutants tested in 2003. Some ships exceeded fecal coliform standard in in 2000-2002. • Large ship effluents met all Alaska Water Quality Standards in the receiving water during stationary discharge for pollutants tested in 2003 using advance systems. In 2000-2002, Large ships did not meet water quality standards for free chlorine, fecal coliform and copper in the receiving water during stationary discharge. • Large ships using functioning advance systems do not pose a risk to human health in areas where aquatic life is harvested for raw consumption.
Small Ship Risk Characterization • The wastewater samples indicate that hazardous chemicals are not being discharged through these wastewater systems. • Small ship wastewater may not meet Alaska Water Quality Standards for free chlorine, fecal coliform, copper, and zinc in receiving water during stationary discharge. • During stationary discharge, small ship effluent may pose a risk to human health in areas where aquatic life is harvested for raw consumption due to the high concentration of fecal coliform.
Comparing Passenger Vessel Dischargers to other Sourcesunits are per 100 ml Large cruise ship 20 fecal coliform Juneau-Douglas 200 fecal coliform Ketchikan 1,000,000 fecal coliform Sitka 1,000,000 fecal coliform Skagway 1,000,000 fecal coliform
Conclusion • ADEC expects that only large cruise ships with advanced wastewater treatment systems will discharge wastewater in Alaska in the future. • Whole Effluent Toxicity test results and a comparison of sample results with Alaska Water Quality Standards indicate that the effluent from these advanced systems is not expected to cause toxicity to the marine environment. • The wastewater samples indicate that hazardous materials are not being discharged through these wastewater treatment systems. • No human health risk is posed by the low concentration of tested pollutants found in advance system wastewater samples.