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Bluetooth Radio and Baseband PowerPoint Presentation
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Bluetooth Radio and Baseband

Bluetooth Radio and Baseband

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Bluetooth Radio and Baseband

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  1. Bluetooth Radio and Baseband Kuei-Ann Wen Kawen@cc.nctu.edu.tw

  2. Part A RADIO SPECIFICATION

  3. CONTENTS • 1 Scope • 2 Frequency Bands and Channel Arrangement • 3 Transmitter Characteristics • 4 Receiver Characteristics • 5 Appendix A • 6 Appendix B

  4. 2 FREQUENCY BANDS AND CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

  5. 3 Transmitter Characteristics • 3.1 Modulation Characteristics • 3.2 Spurious Emissions • 3.2.1 In-band Spurious Emission • 3.2.2 Out-of-Band Spurious Emission • 3.3 Radio Frequency Tolerance

  6. TRANSMITTER POWER CHARACTERISTICS

  7. 3.1 MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS • GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) with a BT=0.5. • The Modulation index must be between 0.28 and 0.35. • A binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation. • The symbol timing shall be better than +20 ppm.

  8. 3.2.1 In-band Spurious Emission

  9. 3.2.2 Out-of-Band Spurious Emission

  10. 4 Receiver Characteristics • 4.1 Actual Sensitivity Level • 4.2 Interference Performance • 4.3 Out-of-band Blocking • 4.4 Intermodulation Characteristics • 4.5 Maximum Useable Level • 4.6 Spurious Emissions • 4.7 Receiver Signal Strength Indicator (optional) • 4.8 Reference Interference-signal Definition

  11. 4.1 ACTUAL SENSITIVITY LEVEL The actual sensitivity level is defined as the input level for which a raw bit error rate (BER) of 0.1% is met. The requirement for a Bluetooth receiver is an actual sensitivity level of -70 dBm or better. In order to measure the bit error rate performance; the equipment must have a loop back facility as specified in Test Mode Specification.

  12. The signal to interference ratio shall be:

  13. In-band Interference

  14. 4.3 OUT-OF-BAND BLOCKING • The out of band blocking is measured with the wanted signal 3 dB over the reference sensitivity level. • The interfering signal shall be a continuous wave signal. • The BER shall be £ 0.1 %. • The Out of band blocking requirements:

  15. Out-of-Band Interference

  16. 4.4 INTERMODULATION CHARACTERISTICS The reference sensitivity performance, BER = 0.1%, shall be met under the following conditions: 1. The wanted signal at frequency f 0 with a power level 6 dB over the reference sensitivity level. 2. A static sine wave signal at f 1 with a power level of -39 dBm. 3. A Bluetooth modulated signal at f 2 with a power level of -39dBm. Such that f 0 =2f 1 -f 2 and ÷ f 2 -f 1÷ =n*1 MHz where n can be 3, 4, or 5. The system must fulfil one of the three alternatives.

  17. Intermodulation characteristic

  18. 4.5 MAXIMUM USEABLE LEVEL The maximum useable input level the receiver shall operate at shall be better than -20 dBm. The BER shall be less or equal to 0,1% at -20 dBm input power. 4.6 SPURIOUS EMISSIONS The spurious emission for a Bluetooth receiver shall not be more than:

  19. 4.8 REFERENCE INTERFERENCE-SIGNAL DEFINITION A Bluetooth modulated interfering signal is defined as: Modulation = GFSK Modulation index = 0.32% BT= 0.5+1% Bit Rate = 1 Mbps +1 ppm Modulating Data = PRBS9 Frequency accuracy better than +1 ppm.

  20. Bluetooth Baseband

  21. Baseband Packet BT Link Controller BT Link Manager & I/O 2.4GHz BT Radio HOST Bluetooth Host Bluetooth Host Other Higher Layer Driver Other Higher Layer Driver HCIDriver HCI Driver Bluetooth hardware Bluetooth hardware Baseband Baseband HCI LM HCI LM Physical Bus Driver (USB, PCCard) Physical Bus Driver (USB, PCCard…) Physical Bus(USB, PCCard…) Firmware Physical Bus(USB, PCCard…) Firmware 1. General Description

  22. 2.4Ghz 2M~81M Packet Composer GFSK fc=1M X X DA 4 42 Coder Encry. Hop Net 0~78 VCO Control Buffer 2871bx2 Demod 1M Packet Composer X FH Acq AD 2.4Ghz 2M~81M CLK 32k CLK 13M 27 System Partition SH Interface

  23. Specification Overview : HCI Packet Command Packet: OpCode (2 bytes) Parameter Length (1 byte) Parameters (the rest of the packet) Event Packet: Event Code (1 byte) Parameter Length (1 byte) Parameters… Parameters (the rest of the packet)

  24. Specification Overview Flags (4 bits) ACL Packet: Connection Handle (12 bits) Length (2 bytes) Data (the rest of the packet) Reserved (4 bits) SCO Packet: Connection Handle (12 bits) Length (1 byte) Data Data (the rest of the packet)

  25. Command Groups(OGF) Link Control Link Policy Host Controller & Baseband Informational Status Testing Examples Create_Connection Hold_Mode Write_Page_Timeout Read_BD_ADD Read_RSSI Specification Overview

  26. 545

  27. Propagation Scheme:

  28. Band Selection : 79MHz or 64MHz • Channel Selection : 1MHz • With digital synthesizer being controlled by LM/HCI signaling 2. PHYSICAL CHANNEL

  29. FH (1600 hops/s)/TDD ChannelSlot numbering range : 0 ~ 227-1 f(2k) f(2k+1) f(2k+2) master t slave t 625 ms

  30. FSK DATA MODULATION PERIODIC CHANGES IN THE CARRIER FREQUENCY SPREADS THE SIGNAL CARRIER FREQUENCY CHANGES AT A SPECIFIED HOP RATE CARRIER FREQUENCY HOPS AFTER A PRESCRIBED TIME TOTAL SYSTEM BANDWIDTH INCLUDES ALL OF THE CHANNEL FREQUENCIES USED IN HOPPING Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TIME AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY AP96358 2-13

  31. Master Timing f(2k) f(2k+1) f(2k+2) TX RX TX t 625 ms 1250 ms

  32. Slave Timing f(2k) f(2k+1) f(2k+2) RX TX RX t 625 ms 1250 ms

  33. Multi-slot Packets 625 s f(k) f(k+1) f(k+2) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) f(k) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) f(k) f(k+5)

  34. 3. PHYSICAL LINKS • Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) Link • circuit switching • symmetric, synchronous services • slot reservation at fixed intervals • Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) Link • packet switching • (a)symmetric, asynchronous services • polling access scheme • SCO(Synchronous Connection-Oriented Link ) : • 1. LM protocol sending SCO setup ( Tsco ( counted in slots), Dsco ) • 2. SCO send in Tsco • 3. Clock wrap-around should be resolved with LMP setup message. • 4. CLK(k+1)=CLK(k)+Tsco

  35. 0-2745 72 54 access code packet header payload Packet Format 4. Packets

  36. PACKET COMPOSER Payload Composer Modem Access Code Composer Preamble+Sync.+(Tail) HeaderComposerAM_ADDR +TYPE +FLOW+SEQN +ARQN +HEC 7.Whitening GFSK 11.Hopper Coder 13.Sync. Code Composer 12.Voice Coding 5..ARQ Handler 5.Coder HEC - CRC- FEC Controler 6.Logical Channel 8.9.TX/RX Routine & Timing 10 Channel Control 14.Security Link Controller Link Manager 13.BD_ADD, 10CLK...

  37. 34 24 6 BCH LAP BRKR 4 64 4 PREAMBLE SYNC WORD TRAILER LSB MSB Access Code

  38. SYNC WORD 145 1. Generate information sequence; 2. XOR this with the “information covering” part of the PN overlay sequence; 3. Generate the extended BCH codeword; 4. XOR the codeword with all 64 bits of the PN overlay sequence;

  39. Device Access Code (DAC): unit identifier derived from unit LAP Channel Access Code (CAC): channel identifier derived from master LAP Inquiry Access Code (IAC): reserved identifier derived from reserved address Access Code Types

  40. PacketHeader 4 1 1 1 8 3 AM_ADDR TYPE FLOW ARQN SEQN HEC information parameter AM_ADDR slave active member address payload type TYPE LC flow control FLOW ACK/NAK ARQN retransmit ordering SEQN header error check HEC

  41. SCO link ACL link SEGMENT TYPE 0000 NULL NULL 0001 POLL POLL 1 0010 FHS FHS 0011 DM1 DM1 0100 DH1 0101 HV1 0110 HV2 2 0111 HV3 1000 DV AUX1 1001 1010 DM3 1011 DH3 3 1100 1101 1110 DM5 4 1111 DH5 Packet Types

  42. ID packet IQ packet NULL packet POLL packet FHS packet Link Control Packets ID packet consists of DAC or IAC. It has a fixed length of 68 bits. It is a very robust packet since the receiver uses a bit corrector to match the received packet to the known bit sequence of the ID packet. 34 24 2 2 2 8 16 24 3 26 3 Parity bits | Lap | NA| SR| SP| UAP |NAP | Class of | AM-ADDR | CLK27-2| Page Scan device Mode

  43. Data Rates (kb/s) Maximum packet size: 28x8+16(crc)+72(access)+54(header)=366

  44. L_CH FLOW LENGTH reserved Payload Header 2 1 5 4 4 L_CH channel information reserved 00 - 01 UA/UI continuation of L2CAP message start of L2CAP message 10 UA/UI LMP message 11 LM

  45. 5. Error Control Coding • Forward-Error Correction (FEC) • 1/3 rate: bit-repeat code • 2/3 rate: (15,10) shortened Hamming code • Automatic Retransmission Query (ARQ) • 1-bit fast ACK/NAK • 1-bit sequence number • header piggy-backing

  46. A B B X C MASTER G F H SLAVE 1 Z Z SLAVE 2 NAK ACK ARQ (I)

  47. CRC check RX ACK/NAK ACK/NAK retransmission TX new ARQ (II)

  48. ARQ Scheme

  49. Error Checking • HEC • CRC