CRITICAL • Involving careful judgement or observation (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary)
CRITIQUE • [ORIGIN French, ult. from Greek kritikē (sc. tekhnē) the critical art, criticism.] • 1 Criticism; esp. the art of criticism. • R. Bentley “I do not expect from our Editors much sagacity in way of Critic.” • 2 A criticism; esp. a critical analysis, article, or essay. M17. • G. Steiner The student and the person interested in the current of literature reads reviews and critiques of books rather than the books themselves. • E. Fromm “Marx's whole critique of capitalism and his vision of socialism.”
Novel • Any of a number of tales or fictional narratives making up a larger short work, as in the Decameron of Boccaccio, the Heptameron of Marguerite of Valois, etc.; a short narrative of this type. Usu. in pl.. • A fictitious prose narrative or tale of considerable length (now usu. one long enough to fill one or more volumes),
ECJ (what it does) • ensures that EU legislation is interpreted and applied in the same way in each Member State. (The Legislation always is to be identical for all parties and in all circumstance) • checks the legality of the actions of the EU institutions, • ensures that the Member States comply with their obligations, and • interprets EU law at the request of national courts
It has the power to settle legal disputes between Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals. • To cope with the many thousands of cases it receives, it is divided into two main bodies: • the Court of Justice, which deals with requests for preliminary rulings from national courts, certain actions for annulment and appeals • and the General Court, which rules on all actions for annulment, brought by private individuals and companies and some such actions brought by Member States.
A specialised tribunal, the Civil Service Tribunal, also adjudicates in disputes between the EU and its civil servants.
ECJ STRUCTURE • Court of Justice: One Judge from each EU Member State; eight Advocates General • General Court: One Judge from each EU Member State • Civil Service Tribunal: Seven Judges • Location: Luxembourg • http://curia.europa.eu
204 Members since 1952: • 131 Members, Court of Justice • 61 Members, General Court (since 1989) • 12 Members, Civil Service Tribunal (since 2005) • Court of Justice: • 28 Judges • 8 Advocates General • 1 Registrar
General Court: • - 28 Judges • - 1 Registrar • Civil Service Tribunal: • - 7 Judges • - 1 Registrar
26 800 judgments and orders delivered since 1952:- Court of Justice, roughly 17 200 - General Court, roughly 8 700 (since 1989) - Civil Service Tribunal, roughly 900 (since 2005)
Linguistic Services • 1 004 posts: 924 (Translation) + 80 (Interpretation) = 48 % of the Institution's staff:- 610 lawyer linguists - 24 official languages of the Union - 552 language combinations - 1 000 000 pages translated annually
Budget • EUR 354,88 Million for 2013
Library • 230 000 volumes :- 10 km of volumes on the shelves - 24 official languages of the Union and certain third country languages • Books on: • - European Union law- international law- comparative law- national laws- general theory of law • economics- politics- social and administrative sciences- library science
EUR-lex • provides direct free access to European Union law. • And the Official Journal of the European Union AND • the treaties, legislation, case-law and legislative proposals. • extensive search facilities available on EUR-Lex.