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Protein Creation Pathway

Protein Creation Pathway

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Protein Creation Pathway

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  1. Protein Creation Pathway Place your keyboard aside. Only use your mouse click on the NUCLEUS to begin the tutorial

  2. back The Nucleus The nucleus (flashing circle) is nicknamed the “control center” of a cell. But why? The nucleus contains DNA in its active form and this DNA will ultimately be used as a blueprint to create proteins for use throughout the body. The process of creating a protein begins in the nucleus. Click the arrow to zoom inside and view a nucleus. See the dark spot inside the nucleus? This is the nucleolus. Give it a click.

  3. back The Nucleolus Nucleolus The nucleolus is a dense region within the nucleus. This organelle (tiny cell part) is responsible for creating thousands of ribosomes. Ribosomes play an important role in the creation of proteins as we will see later. Click the Nucleolus to see an artists drawing. Nucleus

  4. back The Nucleolus The nucleolus is a dense region within the nucleus. This organelle (tiny cell part) is responsible for creating thousands of ribosomes. Ribosomes play an important role in the creation of proteins as we will see later. Monosaccharides makes complex sugars Fatty acids make lipids Nucleotides make nucleic acids These organelles are 3-dimensional. But they often look flat when viewed through a microscope. To proceed, answer the question below. What are the smaller units that proteins are made from called? monosaccharide Fatty acid Nucleotide Amino acid

  5. back Ribosomes Correct! Amino acids make proteins. By far, the ribosomes are the most numerous of all organelles. Remember, they are created by the nucleolus. After exiting the nucleus they themselves are responsible for the production of proteins within the cell. Because they are so small, they resemble tiny dots in this picture. After they exit the nucleus, they are often attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Click HERE to see the ER and attached ribosomes.

  6. back Ribosomes By far, the ribosomes are the most numerous of all organelles. Remember, they are created by the nucleolus. After exiting the nucleus they themselves are responsible for the production of proteins within the cell. Because they are so small, they resembles tiny dots in this picture. After they exit the nucleus, the ribosomes are often attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Let’s review. Which organelle creates the ribosomes? Ribosomes travel along the rough ER. They are not created here. There is something else inside the nucleus that makes the ribosomes nucleus nucleolus Rough ER

  7. back The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Correct! The nucleolus makes ribosomes. Ribosomes are created by the nucleolus and then exit the nucleus. As they exit the nucleus, they begin to create proteins through a process called translation. The rough ER is called “rough” because it is covered with ribosomes. The rough ER is basically a tunnel system to move ribosomes to other parts of the cell. In this sense, you can compare the rough ER to a subway, and the passengers are the ribosomes. Click to see the rough ER.

  8. back The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are created by the nucleolus and then exit the nucleus. As they exit the nucleus, they begin to create proteins through a process called translation. The rough ER is called “rough” because it is covered with ribosomes. The rough ER is basically a tunnel system to move ribosomes to other parts of the cell. In this sense, you can compare the rough ER to a subway, and the passengers are the ribosomes. Since the ribosomes exit the nucleus and flow into the rough ER, the rough ER is attached to the outside of the nucleus.

  9. back The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are created by the nucleolus and then exit the nucleus. As they exit the nucleus, they begin to create proteins through a process called translation. The rough ER is called “rough” because it is covered with ribosomes. The rough ER is basically a tunnel system to move ribosomes to other parts of the cell. In this sense, you can compare the rough ER to a subway, and the passengers are the ribosomes. Since the ribosomes exit the nucleus and flow into the rough ER, the rough ER is attached to the outside of the nucleus. See the dots? Those are the ribosomes.

  10. back The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are created by the nucleolus and then exit the nucleus. As they exit the nucleus, they begin to create proteins through a process called translation. The rough ER is called “rough” because it is covered with ribosomes. The rough ER is basically a tunnel system to move ribosomes to other parts of the cell. In this sense, you can compare the rough ER to a subway, and the passengers are the ribosomes. Since the ribosomes exit the nucleus and flow into the rough ER, the rough ER is attached to the outside of the nucleus. See the dots? Those are the ribosomes.

  11. back The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are created by the nucleolus and then exit the nucleus. As they exit the nucleus, they begin to create proteins through a process called translation. The rough ER is called “rough” because it is covered with ribosomes. The rough ER is basically a tunnel system to move ribosomes to other parts of the cell. In this sense, you can compare the rough ER to a subway, and the passengers are the ribosomes. Since the ribosomes exit the nucleus and flow into the rough ER, the rough ER is attached to the outside of the nucleus. We need to review before we go further.

  12. back Let’s Review Which step happens first? Click the correct sentence. How can they exit if they haven’t been created yet? 1st? -- The ribosomes exit the nucleus 1st? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER. How can they make proteins if they haven’t been created yet? 1st? -- The nucleolus creates ribosomes Correct! Good job!

  13. back Correct! 1st = The nucleolus creates ribosomes Click which happens next. 2nd? -- The ribosomes exit the nucleus 2nd? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER. How can they travel the ER if they haven’t exited the nucleus yet?

  14. back 1st step: The nucleolus creates ribosomes 2nd step: The ribosomes exit the nucleus Watch the animation. Then click the final step. 3rd?? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER. Well it was the final choice. I hope you got it correct.

  15. back Remember, we are tracing the path of protein creation. 1st step: The nucleolus creates ribosomes 2nd step: The ribosomes exit the nucleus 3rd step: The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER.

  16. back Protein Functions Remember, the ribosomes were traveling along the rough ER while making proteins. Proteins are used in a wide variety of cell activities, such as growing hair, carrying oxygen, and digesting foods. Many proteins are created by one cell, but needed by another. Therefore many proteins need to be exported. That’s the job of the Golgi Body (named after Camillo Golgi). Click the arrow to see the Golgi Bodies. Be patient after clicking the play button. Let the pictures cycle. The Golgi body receives the proteins that were created by the ribosomes. The Golgi body packages the protein inside a protective envelope called a vesicle. Doesn’t the Golgi body resemble a stack of pancakes?

  17. back Vesicles Ribosomes travel along the rough ER, but aren’t made here. Vesicles float away from the Golgi body with finished proteins inside. The proteins are released from the cell and are used throughout the body. Let’s do some review. Use your worksheet to help you with the answers. 1) Which organelle creates ribosomes? Golgi body packages proteins Vesicles move finished proteins vesicle Golgi body Ribosomes are made inside the nucleus by something else nucleus Rough ER Ribosomes create themselves? ribosome Nucleolus

  18. back Review #2 Correct! The nucleolus creates ribosomes. Which organelle transports the ribosomes from the nucleus to the Golgi body? Golgi body packages proteins Vesicles move finished proteins vesicle Golgi body nucleus Rough ER The nucleus holds DNA ribosome Nucleolus The nucleolus makes ribosomes Ribosomes make proteins

  19. back Review #3 Correct! The rough ER transports the ribosomes . Which organelle creates proteins? The Golgi body packages proteins Vesicles move finished proteins vesicle Golgi body nucleus Rough ER The rough ER transports ribosomes around the cell The nucleus holds DNA ribosome nucleolus The nucleolus makes ribosomes

  20. back Review #4 Correct! Ribosomes make proteins. Which organelle packages finalized proteins for shipment? Vesicles move finished proteins vesicle Golgi body The rough ER transports ribosomes around the cell nucleus Rough ER The nucleus holds DNA ribosome Nucleolus The nucleolus makes ribosomes The ribosome makes proteins

  21. back Review #5 Correct! The Golgi body packages finalized proteins for shipment. Which organelle protects a finished protein as it exits the cell? The Golgi body packages proteins vesicle Golgi body nucleus Rough ER The rough ER transports ribosomes around the cell The nucleus holds DNA ribosome Nucleolus The nucleolus makes ribosomes Ribosomes make proteins

  22. back Review #6 Try again. This is the Golgi body. Correct! The vesicle protects a finished protein as it exits the cell Now click on the nucleolus. Try again. This is the rough ER.. Try again. This is the mitpchondria.

  23. back Try again. This is the flagella.. Review #7 Correct! That was the nucleolus. Now click on the Golgi body…remember pancakes? Try again. This is the rough ER. Try again. This is the mitochondria.

  24. back Review #8 Try again. This is the Golgi body. Correct! That was the Golgi body. Now click on the rough ER. Try again. This is the Nucleolus Try again. This is the mitochondria.

  25. back Review #9 Try again. The nucleolus does not do this. Correct that was the rough ER! Now click on the organelle that packages proteins for shipment outside of the cell. Try again. The rough ER does not do this. Try again. The mitochondria does not do this.

  26. back Review #10 Try again. The Golgi body does not do this. Correct! That was the Golgi body. Now click on the organelle that creates ribosomes. Try again. The rough ER does not do this. Try again. The mitochondria does not do this.

  27. back Correct! That was the nucleolus.I hope this tutorial was helpful. This will be posted on my website for you to review at any time. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.