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Reading, Typography and Low Vision

Reading, Typography and Low Vision

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Reading, Typography and Low Vision

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  1. Reading, Typography and Low Vision A Few Guidelines for Making Large Print Documents and Tests More Accessible

  2. Information from the American Printing Housefor the Blind Developed and produced by Elaine Kitchel, M. Ed. Research Scientist © 2002 American Printing House for the Blind no portion of this presentation may be altered or used without express permission of APH. NOT FOR SALE

  3. Reading, Typography and Low Vision What do we already know?

  4. a bunch!

  5. FONTS Both readers with low vision and readers with normal vision read faster and with better comprehension with a monospaced font rather than a variable font. Improve- ment in the low vision group was greater, however, than in the group with normal vision. Psychophysics of Reading; Legge, Gordon & Mansfield, J. Stephen

  6. Courier Times Roman

  7. LEADING Both persons with low vision and persons with normal vision had better reading speed and comprehension with increased leading (spacing between lines of text). Scores of persons with low vision showed more improvement with increased leading than the normal group, however. Psychophysics of Reading; Legge, Gordon & Mansfield, J. Stephen

  8. Single Spacing 1.25 spacing

  9. SERIFS Persons with low vision scored significantly higher in both reading speed and compre- hension when they read text without serifs. Persons with normal vision showed a slight improvement using san serif fonts, but perceived themselves to have a better performance using fonts with serifs. Psychophysics of Reading; Legge, Gordon & Mansfield, J. Stephen

  10. San Serif Serif

  11. x-height and t-height Persons with low vision showed higher reading efficiency scores using fonts in which the t-heights and x-heights were generous. One-eighth inch was the minimum height which brought improved scores in the greatest number of subjects. Low Vision and Print Legibility; Arditi, Aries

  12. X-height 1/8” at 18 points X-height 3/32” at 18 points

  13. Indents and Columns • Persons with low vision: • often miss indented items • have trouble reading words in columns because it requres more visual shifting • do best with blocks of information at least • 39 characters wide and left-justified text Low Vision Consumer Focus Group: Health Care Financing Administration

  14. 39 Character Block Lorem ipsum moderate capsicum tentative lillium formosanum penicillin toad refractor fragment personification tizzwinkle periopt quizzical perianther lepidoptera transpond asparagus aluminum diamond of flagmore paphiopedilum oeonethera filamentosuma

  15. 2 Columns Lorem ipsum filament quifty purslane stylus epidendrum phototox mesianthemum orbit photosynthesis candy morose recognized or visionary combustible answer sheets forms Epidendrum phototox lorem ipsum filament morose recognized or quifty purslane stylus answer sheets forms mesianthemum orbit photosynthesis candy visionary combustible

  16. Justified Text Text is easier to read when it is justified on the left and unjustified on the right. This prevents pockets of spaces, which can be misleading to the reader with impaired vision. Existing standards of the National Acreditation Council and the National Association of the Vis- ually impaired.

  17. 39 Character Block Lorem ipsum moderate capsicum tentative lillium formosanum penicillin toad refractor fragment personification tizzwinkle periopt quizzical perianther lepidoptera transpond asparagus aluminum diamond of flagmore paphiopedilum oeonethera filamentosuma

  18. Right and Left Justified Lorem ipsum bith moderate capsicum tentative lillium formosanum and without penicillin toad refractor fragment personification tizz winkle periopt quizzical perianther how lepidoptera tune transpond for asparagus aluminum diamond of flagmore paphiopedilum oeonethera filamentosuma

  19. Text over Graphics Adults with vision impairment who participated in a focus group designed to determine guide- lines for the preparation of large print doc- uments agreed unanimously that text must appear without background graphics or other media which might make letters and characters difficult to discern. Low Vision Consumer Focus group: Health Care Financing Administration

  20. This is a picture of a starfish in- side a vortex. Of course to you it might look like a giant flower or an octopus in a whirlpool. You might even think it is op- art or a computer rendering of a bad dream. However this photo is to demonstrate to you how difficult it is to read text when it is placed over a busy background.

  21. This is a picture of a nice daylily called “Butterfly Kisses.” It likes warm weather and is easy to grow if given just a little water and weeding. The flower is about 7” across and the stems are 30” tall. When the blooms are spent, a nice mound of straplike foliage stays.

  22. Lines and Grayscale Color graphics are preferred, but in their absence black and white line drawings are much easier to see and understand than grayscale. Student Survey of Large Print; Kitchel, Elaine & Evans, Will

  23. LARGE PRINT GUIDELINES: 1 Each large print user should have access to large print that is at least 18 points in size; 2 Each large print user should have access to print that has x-height and t-heights of at least 1/8 inch; 3 Each large print user should have access to print that is in a typeface without serifs; APHont has been constructed to embody characteristics identified through research, to promote readability in persons with low vision. 4 Each large print user should have access to print that allows spacing between lines of print of at least 1 ¼ spaces.

  24. 5 Large print headings and subheadings should • be larger and bolder than regular large print text. • 6 Paragraphs in large print should be block style and • use 1" margins. The left margin should be justified • and the right hand margin should not be justified; • there should be no indentations to delineate • paragraphs. • 7 Where possible, columns and divided words should • be avoided; • 8Large print should appear black on white, ivory, • cream or yellow paper with a dull finish so as not to • promote glare.

  25. 9Large print should not be used over a background • design or other graphical material. • 10 Large print users should have access to graphics • that are enlarged AND maintain the same contrast, • clarity, and appropriate coloration as those prepared • for their sighted peers. • 11 Highly graphical large print materials such as maps • graphs and charts, should adhere to type size, font • and other large print guidelines. • 12 When color is not possible, high-quality, black, • line drawings are preferred over gray scale.

  26. 13 Each large print user should have access to large • print books that weigh no more than 32 oz. • 14 Each large print user should have access to large • print books that are no larger in dimension than 9” x • 12” x 2 ¼ “. This guideline document is a working draft. It is subject to revision and addition.

  27. These illustrations cover only a few of the constructs necessary for accessible large print. More mysteries of low vision and typography to be revealed .

  28. Thank You Elaine Kitchel, M.Ed. American Printing House for the Blind 1839 Frankfort Ave. Louisville, KY (800) 223-1839 © 2002