Integrity and Professionalism University Council on Undergraduate Research Summer Research Students Dusty Layton Director, Office of Research Compliance email@example.com
Research Ethics • Process of making moral decisions • Right vs wrong • Integrity and Trust • Hallmarks of scientific discovery and publication process Influences on undergraduate students: • Peers • The student himself/herself
Temptations….. Source.. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society • Removing required reading from libraries to make is more difficult for other students • Services available to “ghost write” papers • Archives of previous lab reports/tests make it possible for students to use “better data” and prepare for the exact questions rather than study all the material
Ethical Conduct • Academia does not tolerate fraudulent activity ….only effective for those who accept professional norms • Threat of punishment may deter some • Professional codes of conduct • The undergraduate with a sense of self worth and values will not succumb • Easy? No • Possible? Yes
Why Does Fraud Occur? • Pressure for career advancement • Pressure to get research funding • Pressure to get a job • Pressure for peer recognition • Publish/perish pressure
Responsible Conduct in Research • Range of ethical issues in research- We believe we know, but we don’t always know
Responsible Research Conduct • The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) defines research integrity as “adherence to rules, regulations, guidelines, and commonly accepted professional codes or norms.” • Research integrity is essential to ensure the reliability of research results and to preserve public support for research.
Purpose of RCR • Increasing knowledge and sensitivity to issues surrounding RCR • Improving ability of participants to make ethical/legal choices in the face of conflicts involving research in their careers • Developing an appreciation for the range of accepted practices across disciplines • Acquiring information about the regulations, policies and guidelines that govern research • Developing and fostering positive attitudes towards lifelong learning matters involving research ethics
In general terms….. • RCR is simply good citizenship applied to professional life • Individuals who report their work honestly, accurately, efficiently and objectively • Researchers learn best practices in a number of ways and in different settings…. vary from field to field
RCR core areas • Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership • Conflict of Interest and Commitment • Human Subjects • Animal Welfare • Research Misconduct • Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship • Peer Review • Collaborative Science
Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership • Data are the foundation of research and science….their integrity is paramount. • Almost all types of research include records that should be kept in bound lab notebooks. At a minimum, notebooks can provide a listing: - The date of research, the investigators, what was done, and where the corresponding research products can be found. • Notebook should be supplemented as needed by specialized methods of recordkeeping such as computer files, videotapes, and gels. • Do not erase data
Conflict of Interest/Commitments Competing demands on time, effort and responsibilities Conflict of Interest Conflict of Commitments - Not inherently negative - Management of conflicts is important - Manage through full and regular disclosure - Identify/address conflicts with solutions (collect data but have someone else analyze it)
Human Subjects Research Research with human participants has proven invaluable: advancing knowledge in the biomedical, behavioral and social sciences • Basic ethical principles: - Respect for Persons - Beneficence - Justice • Institutional Review Board
Animal Care and Use • Animal research provides a model for testing new procedures • Knowledge gained provides answers to questions important to advancing the science of behavior and to improving the welfare of both humans and other animals • IACUC – oversees the ethical and humane care and use of animals in research
Social Responsibility and Integrity • Work in all disciplines (humanities to engineering to sciences) provides building blocks of knowledge • Public funds and trust are placed in the hand of the research • His/her findings may lead to new legislation, new treatments, new policies, etc. • We trust the results obtained by others in order to develop new hypotheses • This requires that professionals in all disciplines be objective, careful and honest
When Integrity Fails…… • We mislead colleagues and the public in general • Waste of funds entrusted to us and to others that may follow our ideas • Hurt indirectly or directly other human beings • If intentional, we will loose federal funding/job • If not reported, the entire institution will loose federal funding
Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship • Authorship is the means by which new work is communicated among scientists and peers • Responsible authors adhere to guidelines (professional associations and editorial policies of professional journals) • Authors have responsibility to avoid redundant or duplicate publications
Collaborative Science • Trust and mutual responsibility is crucial • Ways to assure successful collaboration • Discuss ideas in advance • Communication • Form a partnering agreement (verbal vs. formal agreement) • Objectives/goals; contributions; criteria for authorship/credits; participation at meetings writing required reports, etc..
Research Misconduct “Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing research or in reporting research results” PHS Policies: 42 CFR Parts 50 and 93 NSF Policy: 45 CFR Ch. VI (10-1-02 edition)
Case Example - Pat J. Palmer Fabricated 6 interview records Fabricated claim of Ph.D. (B.S. and M.S. also) Falsified that she was co-author on 10 articles Did I say I have a Ph.D. in Epidemiology?
Questionable Research Practices Actions that violate traditional values of the research enterprise and that may be detrimental to the research process. • Failing to retain significant research data for a reasonable period • Maintaining inadequate research records • Using inappropriate statitisical or other methods to enhance research findings • Mispresentating speculations as fact or releasing preliminary research results (ie, in the public media)
WebGURU http://www.webguru.neu.edu/index.php The Web Guide to Research for Undergraduates (WebGURU) • interactive web-based tool intended to assist undergraduates navigate the hurdles of an undergraduate research experience • Web-GURU project was originally funded by the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education'sEducational Materials Development Program