On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct of Research Elsa G. Nadler Director, Grants Development 419.383.6967 Elsa.firstname.lastname@example.org
Why Worry about Ethics? • The science itself • Other scientists • The public • The future • Ourselves
Federal Definition Scientific misconduct or misconduct in research – Research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them. Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. Research misconduct does not include honest error or honest difference of opinion.
What Is Research Integrity? • Misconduct • Mentors and Trainees • Peer Review • Publication • Collaborations • Record Keeping • Conflict of Interest • Data Ownership • Intellectual Property • Use of Animals • Use of Humans • Genetic Technology (new)
Who Is Involved? • You as students • Your colleagues • Your instructors • Professional societies • Grant-making organizations (and the federal government)
On Being a Scientist (INDI 602/802)Fall Semester 2009Tuesdays 9:00-10:30 AM Course Director: Dr. Randy Ruch Department of Biochemistry & Cancer Biology Office: BHSB 410 Phone: 419-383-4408 E-mail: email@example.com DATE TOPIC INSTRUCTOR ROOM* 8/25/09 History of Science and Scientific Ethics Edinger HEB 227 9/1/09 Research Ethics Edinger HEB 227 9/8/09 Research Ethics Nadler HEB 227 9/15/09 Conflict of Interest Devries HEB 227 9/22/09 Research Funding Ratnam HEB 227 9/29/09 Use of Human Subjects in Research: IRB Pinkston, Wisniewski HEB 227 10/6/09 NO CLASS 10/13/09 Intellectual Property Fox HEB 227 10/20/09 Biohazard and Biosafety Policies Valigosky HEB 227 10/27/09 Preparation of a Professional CV Tietz HEB 227 11/3/09 Use of Animals in Research: IACUC Chiaia HEB 227 11/10/09 Mentoring/Trainee Relationships & Case Studies Ruch HEB 227 *HEB = Health Education Building
Recommended Reading • Cantor's Dilemma: A Novel by Carl Djerassi (The Penguin Group, New York, NY: 1991) • This short novel covers RCR topics such as publishing, collaborations, laboratory procedures, data keeping and ownership, mentoring, and peer review from the perspectives of the humanities (where applicable) as well as the sciences.
Online Resources • The following slides provide some of the many online sources of information. • A Google search of "research ethics" or "research misconduct" or "responsible conduct of research" will yield many more.
Office of Research Integrityhttp://ori.dhhs.gov/education/ ORI supports several programs designed to promote education and training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that covers the following nine instructional areas: • Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership • Conflict of Interest and Commitment • Human Subjects • Animal Welfare • Research Misconduct • Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship • Mentor / Trainee Responsibilities • Peer Review • Collaborative Science
American Psychological Associationhttp://www.apa.org/science/rcr/homepage.html American Psychological Association http://www.apa.org/science/rcr/homepage.html • Responsible conduct of research (RCR) includes most of the professional activities that are part and parcel of a research career and that are coming under increasing regulatory scrutiny. As defined by federal agencies, RCR encompasses the following nine areas: research misconduct, human participants, research involving animals, data acquisition, management, sharing, and ownership, mentor/trainee responsibilities, publication practices and responsible authorship, peer review, collaborative science, conflicts of interests and commitments.Under the aegis of the new PSY21 initiative the APA Science Directorate is undertaking a number of new activities and projects in the area of RCR. Activities include RCR workshops and development of training and informational materials. The purview of RCR will also be broaden to include responsible translation of research results into a form that is understandable and usable by the general public and policy makers.APA has also established an ad hoc committee whose charge is to promote shared knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes for ethical and responsible conduct of research among investigators and students in the psychological sciences with the goal of maximizing scientific rigor and productivity within the research community.Furthermore, since 1925, the APA Committee on Animal Research Ethics (CARE) has been devoted to safeguarding and promoting ethical conduct in research with animals, other than humans.
Council of Graduate Schoolshttp://www.cgsnet.org/Default.aspx?tabid=123 Current Initiatives Supported by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), CGS has launched the Project for Scholarly Integrity to develop institutional models for expanding and embedding ethics and RCR education projects. Information about the project can be found at the following website: http://www.scholarlyintegrity.org The objectives of this new CGS initiative are: to expand the cadre of graduate deans who will serve as leaders in fostering a climate of research integrity in graduate education; to generate information about what works best in promoting a comprehensive institutional approach to RCR education; to document the results of the funded projects online and in a best practice monograph series; and to promote community-wide activity building on this initiative through publications, frequent meetings, the CGS scholarly integrity Website, and interactive media. Background and Earlier Initiatives The Council of Graduate Schools is committed to advancing the scope and quality of graduate education in the ethical and responsible conduct of research. Early initiatives on this topic stemmed from a growing recognition that students, postdoctoral fellows, technicians, and even faculty, must be better informed about the norms of science and scholarship, the ethical responsibilities of research, and the policies and regulations that govern research in the U.S. Many situations in which ethical issues arise are complex, demanding distinct skills for identifying and assessing problems and solutions. To advance the development of such skills, CGS began to create model programs that integrate research ethics and scholarly integrity into the structure and the climate of the entire graduate school research experience. CGS initiatives have been made possible with funding from the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The initial CGS project funded by ORI supported the generation and testing of strategic interventions and assessment strategies in the behavioral and biomedical fields at ten universities. The initiative funded by NSF made it possible to support and assess projects at eight institutions focusing on programs in science and engineering that cross disciplinary boundaries.
National Institutes of Healthhttp://bioethics.od.nih.gov/ Welcome to the NIH's Bioethics Resources on the Web! The Internet is replete with resources available to those with an interest in bioethics including education, research involving human participants and animals, medical and health care ethics, and the implications of applied genetics and biotechnology. This website contains a broad collage of annotated web links, and while this list is comprehensive, it is not totally inclusive. The listed resources provide background information and various positions on issues in bioethics. Where possible, we have linked directly to those positions.
The National Academieshttp://www7.nationalacademies.org/obas/ The focus of this study is to develop an updated, third edition ofCOSEPUP’s On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research. On Being a Scientist provides guidance to students and researchers and describes the ethical foundations and standards of scientific practices and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. Contact Information:Keck Center of the National Academies500 Fifth Street, NW, K549Washington, DC firstname.lastname@example.orgCommittee MeetingsThe funding for this study has been finalized. The OBAS committee roster. The projected release date for the report is June 30, 2008. Join our ListservReceive news and announcements about the project. Click here to join. Related ReportsOn Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research (1995). Second Edition.
Online Ethics Centerhttp://www.onlineethics.org/ • On Education Ideas, teaching advice, research, and other pedagogical information about incorporating ethics into the engineering classroom at every level. • Safety and the EnvironmentEssays and articles, cases, guidelines, and reference materials related to environmental issues (including sustainability) and safety concerns. • Professional PracticeAn extensive section with a large number of essays and articles, as well as sets of cases, discussions, and ethical guidelines bearing on the various professional responsibilities of engineers. • Employment and Legal IssuesCases, essays, and reference materials that address ethical issues for employees, managers, and organizations. There are also resources for considering the intersection of ethics and the law. • Responsible ResearchThis section of the OEC contains cases, discussions, guidelines, and regulations bearing on the responsible conduct of research, including both issues of research integrity and issues of the treatment of the research subject. • Computers and New TechnologyMaterial addressing the specific ethical issues arising from computers, computer/software engineering, and the Internet, as well as other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. The section includes cases, essays, ethical guidelines, and web resources.
University of Pittsburgh http://www.pitt.edu/~provost/ethresearch.html