FEM3101 – 3(2+1) SEMESTER 1, 2015/2016 PJJ F2F 1 – 6 SEPTEMBER 2015 SitiNor Yaacob, PhD. Dept. of Human Dev. & Family Studies (A1-05) firstname.lastname@example.org 603-89467088/012-2841844 Children & Adolescents
GROWTH • Growth is a quantitative process of change • i.e. change in weight/height, size and structure, physical and mental aspects. • Changes can be measured & assess - from one stage to the other. • Growth will reach its peak once a person mature.
DEFINITION • “Growth is an individual development in body size, for ex. changes in muscles, bones, hair, skin & glands” [Karl E. Garrison] • “Growth is a change that can be measured from one stage to the other, and from time to time” [Atan Long] • “Growth as an increment in a person external attributes. For examples in terms of size, height and body weight” [D.S Wright & Ann Taylor]
DEVELOPMENT • Developmental is defined as change. • Human development refers to a particular type of change or the pattern of change that begins at conception and continue through the life span. • Development occurs in the context of the significant social environment of life process (family, school, peer group, community).
THUS….CHILD DEVELOPMENT IS… A scientific study of understanding all aspects of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence. A part of a larger discipline known as developmental psychology or human development, which includes all changes experienced throughout the lifespan.
BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AS A DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE • Three general condition/criteria • The change is orderly or sequential. • The change results in a permanent alteration of behavior. • The change results in a new behavior or mode of functioning that is more advanced, adaptive or useful than prior behaviors.
THE STUDY OF CHILDHOOD: BASIC CONCEPTS • Developmental Processes: Changes and Stability • Quantitative change (growth) – Involve changes in size or amount, such as height, weight. • Qualitative change – a change in types, structure, or organization, such as the ability for verbal communication, motor skill ability. • Changes cannot be ‘measured’ but can be observed and compared with earlier development. E.g. ability of a newborn & 5 months old baby • Stability – constancy or enduring characteristics • Changes in development is continues from one stage to the other but maintaining a pattern • Specific characteristics Cephalacaudal, proximodistal, mass to specific
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • Prenatal • Infancy (0-2 year) & Toddlerhood (2-3 year) • Early childhood(3-6 year) • Middle childhood • Adolescence (11-19 year) • Early (11-14 year) • Middle (15-17 year) • Late (18-19 year) • Adulthood(≥ 20 year) • Early (20-30 year) • Middle (40-50 year) • Late (60 year and above)
DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT • Physical development • Body, brain, senses, motor skills • Cognitive development • Learning, memory, language, thinking, moral reasoning • Psychosocial development • Personality, emotions, social relationships • Interrelated throughout development
INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT • Factors that can influence development are:- • Nature (sejadi) • Genetic (Warisan/baka/genetik) • Nurture (Asuhan) • Environment (Persekitaran) • Food intake (Pemakanan) • Health (Kesihatan)
MAJOR CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES • Normative Influences • Normative age-graded influences/event, i.e. biological or social • Example = puberty or entry into formal schooling • Normative history-graded event, i.e. cohort (a group of people who share a similar experience) • Example = living during the Great Depression/Tsunami • i.e. Atypical events, e.g. having a birth defect • Non-normative Influences • Individual events that impact the person • Events can be traumatic or happy
Historical Foundation: How the study of childhood has evolved? • Early Approaches • Medieval times • The Reformation • The Enlightenment • John Locke • John Jacques Rousseau • Darwin
SCIENTIFIC BEGINNINGS • Baby biographies • Charles Darwin • G. Stanley Hall • Normative Period of Child Study • Mental Testing Movement
AN EMERGING CONSENSUS All domains are interrelated. Normal development includes a wide range of individual differences. Children help to shape their own development and influence others’ responses to them. Historical and cultural contexts strongly influence development. Early experience is important, but children can be remarkably resilient. Development in childhood is connected to development throughout the rest of the lifespan.
WHAT IS A THEORY? • A theory is a set of logically related concepts or statements, which seeks to describe and explain development and predict what kinds of behavior may occur under certain conditions. • Hypotheses are tentative explanations or predictions that can be tested by research.
THEORY An orderly, integrated set of statements that Describes Explains behavior Predicts Benefits of Theories in Developmental Psychology • Explain the meaning of an event/facts • Able to relate these facts
THEORIES • Psychoanalytic • Psychosexual (S. Freud) • Psychosocial (E. Erickson) • Learning • Behavioral Learning • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) • Operant Conditioning (Skinner) • Social Learning (A. Bandura) • Cognitive • Cognitive Developmental Theory (J. Piaget) • Socio-cultural (L. Vygotsky) • Moral Development (Reasoning) (Kohlberg) • Human Ecology System (U. Bronfenbrenner)
PSYCHOANALYTIC • Trust versus mistrust • Autonomy vs shame • Initiative vs guilt • Industry vs Inferiority • Identity vs Identity Confusion • Intimacy versus isolation • Generativity vs stagnation • Integrity vs despair • Oral stage • Anal stage • Phallic • Latency • Genital Psychosexual (S. Freud)*Psychosexual stages Psychosocial (E. Erickson)* 8 stages of dev.
PSYCHOANALYTIC • Psychoanalytic theory proposes that morality develops through humans' conflict between their instinctual drives and the demands of society. • Freud identified three parts of the personality that become integrated during five stages of development • Id • Ego • Superego
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Superego Ego Id
PERSONALITY STRUCTURES • ID (unconscious element) • the largest portion is the source of basic biological needs and desires. • EGO (semi-conscious element) • the conscious rational part of the personality, emerges in early infancy to redirect the id’s impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways • SUPEREGO (The conscious element that function on the basis of morality). • the conscience that develops between ages 3 and 6 through interactions with parents, who insist that the child conform to the values of society.
FREUD PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES • Oral stage [0- 1 year] – • Mouth is the focus of stimulation & interaction. Feeding & weaning are central • Anal stage [1-3 year] – • Anus as the focus of stimulation & interaction. Elimination & toilet training is central
FREUD PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES • Phallic [3-6year] • The genital is the focus of stimulation. Gender role & moral development are central. • Conflict between id & superego • Children interested to know more different sexes, babies etc. • 2 main conflict: • Oedipus Conflict son attracted to mother • Electra Conflict daughter attracted to father • Penis envy
FREUD PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES • Latency [6-12 year] • A period of suspended sexual activities; Energy shift to physical and intellectual activities. Focus on achievement • Genital [Adolescent – adulthood (12 & above)] • Genital are the focus of stimulation with the onset of puberty • Mature sexual relationship develop
BEHAVIORAL THEORY • Stimulus & Response • Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit the response. • Learning based on reinforcement (punishment) or punishment • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Behavior modification • Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)
BEHAVIORAL THEORY • Modelling (Role model) • Theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models • Observational learning • Models • Importance of values and thoughts in imitating behavior of a model • Practical implications? • Social Learning Theory • Albert Bandura
BEHAVIORISM & SOCIAL LEARNING • Development results from learning • Behaviorism – a mechanistic theory • Continuous change • Quantitative change • Importance of the environment • Associative learning
COGNITIVE THEORY • Community & culture influence on development Focus is the social, cultural, and historical complex of which the child is part. • Social Interaction • Zone of proximal development – The difference between what a child can do alone and with help • Scaffolding – Temporary support to help a child master a task. • Sensorimotor (0-2) • Preoperational (2-6) • Concrete Operational (6-11) • Formal Operation (11-adulthood) • Jean Piaget • Cognitive Development • Socio-Cultural Theory • L. Vygotsky
VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY Transmission of culture to new generation Beliefs, customs, skills Social interaction necessary to learn culture Cooperative dialogue with more knowledgeable members of society Zone of proximal Scaffolding
COGNITIVE THEORY • Lvel 1: Preconventional morality (4-9 years) • Punishment and obedience orientation • Instrumental/Egoistic orientation • Level 2: Convensional morality (10-15 years) • Good boy-nice girl orientation • Law and order • Level 3: Postconventional • Social contract • Universal ethical principles • Moral Development • Kohlberg
THE ECOLOGICAL-SYSTEMS APPROACH • Human Ecological System • U. Bronfenbrenner • View of development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context • Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological theory • Understanding processes and contexts of development • Micro system • Meso system • Exosystem • Macrosystem • Chronosystem
RESEARCH METHODS INSTUDYING CHILDREN HOW THEORY AND RESEARCH WORK TOGETHER? • Which theory is generally accepted today? • What is the relationship between theory and research?
RESEARCH METHODS • Qualitative and quantitative research • Scientific method – system of established principles and processes of scientific inquiry • Identifying a problem • Formulating hypotheses • Collecting data • Analyzing the data • Disseminating findings
SAMPLING • Groups of participants chosen to represent the entire population • The sample should adequately represent the population under study • Generalization • Random selection
FORMS OF DATA COLLECTION • Naturalistic and laboratory observations • Parental report/self-reports • Clinical interview • Open-ended interview • Structured interview • Questionnaire
SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION • Observe respondent in their natural setting • Naturalistic Observation • In the “field” or natural environment where behavior happens • Structured observation • Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of interest • All participants have equal chance to display behavior • Participant observation • Incognito • Record data: • Audio • Video • Manual
INTERVIEWS Clinical Interview Flexible, conversational style Probes for participant’s point of view Structured Interview Each participant is asked same questions in same way May use questionnaires, get answers from groups
BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS • Case studies • Collect various information about a subject to be studied (people/event) • Make a conclusion about subject understudied. • Ethnographic studies • Participant observation • Correlational studies – • To examine the relationship between 2 variables (independent and dependent variables) • Research intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between two variables exists • Problems of control and interpretation of causality • Survey - A study on respondent’s views on certain issues • Use Questionnaires/Structured interview schedule
CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS Magnitude Size of the number between 0 and 1. Closer to one (positive or negative) is a stronger relationship rvalue Direction Indicated by + or - sign. Positive (+) means, as one variable increases, so does the other Negative (-) means, as one variable increase, the other decreases.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES • To examine the cause & effect of a phenomena understudied • Rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other. • Independent variable - the condition over which the experimenter has direct control • Dependent variable - the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable • Experimental group and control group
INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES Independent • Experimenter changes, or manipulates • Expected to cause changes in another variable. Dependent Experimenter measures, but does not manipulate Expected to be influenced by the independent variable
MODIFIED EXPERIMENTS Field Experiments Use rare opportunities for natural assignment in natural settings Natural Experiment Compare differences in treatment that already exist Groups chosen to match characteristics as much as possible