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US AND THE MIDDLE EAST. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS . REQUIRED VOCABULARY. OADR-Originating Agency Determination required MNFSA-Multi national force/ Saudi Arabia
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US AND THE MIDDLE EAST GLOBAL CONNECTIONS
REQUIRED VOCABULARY • OADR-Originating Agency Determination required • MNFSA-Multi national force/ Saudi Arabia • SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY-"Shuttle Diplomacy" is most often used when the two primary parties do not formally recognize each other but want to be involved in negotiations in order to disengage opposing armies as well as to promote a lasting truce between the belligerents. A third party serves as an intermediary or mediator between the two parties, "shuttling" back and forth, between the two feuding parties. The term became widespread following Henry Kissinger's term as the 56th United States (U.S.) Secretary of State (1973-1977). Famously, Kissinger primarily used shuttle diplomacy to mediate conflicts in the Middle East throughout the1970s, specifically those between Israel and Arab states following the 1973 Yom Kippur War. www.theisraelproject.
US RECOGNIZES ISRAEL • 1948-With encouragement from advisors and US Jewish community, President Harry Truman gives de facto recognition to the new state of Israel.
COUP OCCURS IN IRAN • 1953-Prime Minister Moseddeq is ousted from Iran in a coup that history has shown to have planning and assistance from the CIA. US government was encouraged by Britain, France and Moseddeq’s perceived Soviet leanings to remove him from office and support a less democratic but more Western Shah-run government in Iran. • The Cold War and fear of communism becomes important in US foreign policy decisions.
Six Day War • 1967-Israel and her Arab neighbors of Egypt, Syria and Jordan enter war. Israel quickly defeats foreign troops and takes control of additional territory in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Israel settlers begin moving into captured areas and refugees leave the area for Jordan, refugee camps and immigration to other countries. Palestinians increase calls for a Homeland.
Shuttle Diplomacy • 1975-Henry Kissinger as US Secretary of State logs miles and many trips between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan brokering a negotiated treaty including return of the Sinai to Egypt. The West Bank and Gaza Strip remain in Israel hands. Despite the difficulty, finally in the Carter administration the nation of Egypt recognizes the right of Israel to exist.
Iranian Hostage Crisis • 1977-The Shah is forced from power in Iran after years of repression of opponents. Despite his lack of democracy, the Shah had been pro Western and had served as a stabilizing force in the Middle East for twenty five years. He kept oil flowing, and encouraged modernization. • Islamic radicals, encouraged by Ayatollah Khomeini storm the US Embassy and hold fifty-two people as hostage for 444 days.
LEBANON • 1983-The US becomes part of a multi national force in Lebanon during the civil war in that nation. A terrorist drives a truck into a US military barracks killing 241 soldiers.
DESERT STORM • 1990-Saddam Hussein of Iraq launches an invasion of the neighboring nation of Kuwait claiming the country and its oil fields belong to Iraq. The United Nations condemns the action. President George H W Bush creates a multi national coalition opposing Hussein and leads troops to liberate Kuwait.
CLINTON YEARS • 1998-2006-Clinton works with Israel and Arab nations to secure a lasting peace in the Middle East. Despite the assistance of Arab leaders (most notably King Hussein of Jordan) the agreements to not survive and create the peace longed for in the area.
9/11 ATTACKS • 2001-Three airplanes are hijacked in the US and flown into the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in D.C. Another plane is commandeered by passengers and crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
EXCERPTS ANDDOCUMENTS -1948-US Recognition of Israel-Truman Administration 1953-Coup in Iran –CIA aided coup to dispose Prime Minister-Eisenhower Administration 1967-Six Day War-Johnson Administration 1975-Shuttle Diplomacy-Ford Administration 1977-Iranian Hostage Diary entry-Carter Administration 1983-Military barrack attack in Lebanon- Reagan Administration 1990-Desert Storm-Bush(41)Administration 1998-2006 –Sec’y State statement on US involvement-Clinton Administration 2001- 9/11 Attack-Bush Administration
YOUR TASK • Read and analyze your document (s). • Meet with your peer who have the same document and discuss and prepare to share with class. • Share your document –summarize information. Share consequences of the action for the US and foreign nations, anything you believe might be controversial to the US and its citizens. • Write your essay.