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Basic Tenets of Islam

Basic Tenets of Islam

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Basic Tenets of Islam

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  1. Basic Tenets of Islam

  2. What is Islam and how is it related to Judaism and Christianity? • Islam = “peace,” “submission” • Muslim = “submitter” • Abraham’s two sons: • Isaac  the Hebrews (Judaism  Christianity) • Ishmael  the Arabs (Islam) • Islam respects the two earlier Abrahamic religions as “Peoples of the Book”

  3. “The People of the Book”

  4. Judaism, Christianity, & Islam share the same God, the God of Abraham:Yahweh = God = Allah!

  5. Who was Muhammad? • b. 570 CE, d. 632 CE • Prophet/founder; human, not divine • Lived in Arabia, near Mecca • Orphaned by age 6, raised by grandfather and uncle • Worked as a caravan driver for a wealthy woman – Khadija – 15 years his senior • Age 25: accepted offer to marry Khadija • Sired six children; only one daughter – Fatimah – had children of her own • Age 40: Revelation begins

  6. Arabia

  7. Mecca • Mecca was the center of a booming pilgrimage industry, with much of the local economy reliant on worshippers traveling to the city to pray to the gods at a religious shrine known as the Ka’aba • When Muhammad began teaching against those gods in favor of Allah, or the one true God, local leaders began to see him as a threat

  8. The Hijra (Hegira) • Muhammad and his followers were forced to flee from Mecca to the town of Yathrib (Medina) in 622 AD to avoid assassination and religious persecution

  9. The Development of Islam • Early persecution by Meccans • Year 619: wife and uncle both die • Year 622: Hijrah - migration to Yathrib (Medina = “City of the Prophet”) (year 1 AH) • Success in Medina, defense against Meccan attacks • Year 630: Reclaiming of Mecca • Year 632: first Muslim pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, led by Muhammad who died a few months later, having united the Arab tribes under the banner of Islam • Within 100 years, spread east toward India and west into north Africa and Spain

  10. The Death of Muhammad • Died in 632, just months after delivering his “Farewell Sermon” • Buried in Medina • Tomb next to him remains empty, awaiting the return of the prophet Jesus

  11. What do Muslims Believe? • One God (Allah) • Spiritual beings: • Angels, Jinn and the Devil (“Iblis,” “Shaitan”) • Prophets & Messengers: • Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, Muhammad… • Holy Books: • Torah, Psalms, Gospels, Qur’an • Decrements (destiny) – Inshallah (“if God wills”) • End Times (eschatology) • Resurrection, Judgment day, Heaven & Hell

  12. What is the Qur’an? • Holy book of Islam • Revealed to Muhammad by God through angel Gabriel • Written piecemeal by scribes during or shortly after Muhammad’s life • Compiled as a whole about 20 years after Muhammad’s death • Comprised of 114 chapters (called surahs) • Other Sources: Hadith and Sunnah (stories, sayings, and traditions of Muhammad) • Qur’an + Hadith and Sunnah = Shariah (Islamic Law)

  13. The Qu’ran (Koran)

  14. Islam as a Way of Life Shariah (Islamic Law) • Based on Qur’an + Hadith and Sunnah • Concerned with preserving human dignity through five principles: • preservation of life • preservation of progeny (family) • preservation of intellect (education) • preservation of wealth (property) • preservation of religion • not just for the individual but for the society

  15. The Five Pillars • Shahada – Witness: • “There is no God but The God (Allah) and Muhammad is the Prophet of God • Salat – Prayer, five times every day • Zakat– alms giving to the poor and needy • Sawm– fasting, sun-up to sun-down during month of Ramadan • Hajj– Pilgrimage to Mecca (at least once in a Muslim’s life, if able)

  16. The Five Pillars of Islam

  17. 1. Shahada • Profession of faith • “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet” • Prohibits images of religious figures • Places limitations on the creation of an organized central “church” • Should be the first and last things one hears in life

  18. 2. Salat • Daily prayer • 5 times a day at set times (dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, nightfall) • Must face in the direction of Mecca • Prayer has a specific pattern to how it should be performed

  19. Prayer Rug with Compass

  20. What is a Mosque? • A place for prayer, study, socializing • No shoes in prayer hall • Women cover head, separate from men • Wudu room for ritual cleansing before prayer • Minaret for call to prayer (Adhaan) • Prayer hall oriented toward Mecca (qibla) • Imam (prayer leader) stands in mirahb(niche)

  21. Mosque = Muslim house of worship

  22. 3. Zakat • Give alms to the poor • Purifies wealth • Creates dependable means of caring for the needy • Not as burdensome as the Christian tithe (2.5% vs. 10%), does not go to the “church” but to the needy!

  23. 4. Siyam (Sawm) • Fast (no food, drink, or sex) from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan • Renews spirit, brings one closer to Allah • Teaches self-discipline, sense of community • Not required for certain groups (children, pregnant or nursing women, the ill)

  24. 5. Hajj • A pilgrimage to Mecca • Should be undertaken at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime • May be excused if it is unaffordable or if the Muslim is not physically capable

  25. The Ka’aba • Older than Islam • Supposedly first built by Abraham • Eastern corner houses “the Black Stone” • Covered in black silk with gold Shahada • Entrance to interior is strictly limited

  26. Prohibitions Halal (permissible) and Haram (prohibited) • No eating of pork (other dietary regulations = halal) • No gambling • No intoxicants • No fornication (homosexuality, adultery, prostitution, etc.) • No usury (charging or paying interest on loans) (the rich shall not profit from helping the poor)

  27. Who are Muslims? • More than one billion Muslims in the world today • Two major groups: • Sunni: 80% in many locations throughout the world • Shi’ite: 15%, mostly in Iran • Difference is political, basic beliefs and practices are the same • Sufis are Muslim mystics, come from both Sunni and Shi’ite backgrounds • Most Muslims are not Arab and not all Arabs are Muslim

  28. Islam broke into two major branches: Sunnis & Shiites

  29. Sunnis … Believe that any devout Muslim can be the spiritual leader of the Islamic people Almost 90% of modern Muslims Shiites … Believe that only a descendant of Muhammad is qualified to be the spiritual leader of Islam Less than 10%, mostly in Iran Sunni v. Shia