Ashby C of EPrimary School KS1 Phonics Workshop 23rd January 2014
What we will cover: • What is phonics • How we teach phonics in FS and KS1 • Terminology • Recap phases 1-4 • Phase 5 • Phase 6
What is Phonics? • Knowledge of letters and the sounds they make. • Skills of blending these sounds together to read words. • Skills of segmenting the sounds in a word and choosing the correct letters needed to spell it. • Phonics is the step up to word recognition. Automatic reading of all words, decodable and tricky, is the ultimate goal.
How do we teach Phonics? • Letters and Sounds Phases 1-6 • The children are set across their Key Stage, according to the phase of Letters and Sounds they are working on. • They receive 20 minutes focussed phonics teaching Mon-Thurs • Spelling test on Friday
Spellings • In Years 1 and 2 your child will bring home spellings to practise linked to the phase and week they are currently working on. • They need to be able to spell the words correctly in their test but also show that they are applying those spellings into sentences and their other work in school. • Their score will be recorded on their spelling card along with any words they spell incorrectly. Spelling cards need to be in book bags at all times.
There are 44 phonemes that the children learn throughout the Letters and Sounds Programme. As well as the sounds of the letters of the alphabet there are also … Consonant digraphs-contain 2 consonants Put together they make a new phoneme and are not heard individually e.g. chthllcksh Vowel digraphs-contain 2 letters, at least one is a vowel e.g. aieeoaar or oyowera_ei_e (split digraphs – e on the end) Trigraph – contain 3 letters e.g. ear ighdge
Correct pronunciation of phonemes is very important in helping children read and spell correctly. The pronunciation of the consonant phonemes can be grouped: 1. f l m n r s z v sh th zh (continuous) 2. c p t ch h (short, soft) • b d g w qu y j (short) http://www.getreadingright.co.uk/phoneme/pronounce-the-phonemes/4
Unfortunately, these 44 phonemes are not spelled in the same way! Children are gradually introduced to more alternative spellings as they progress through the Letters and Sounds Programme. Grapheme – The letter/letters we use to spell a phoneme/digraph/trigraph. Some have more than one grapheme How many ways can we spell the long e phoneme? e.g. he / sweet / seal / baby How many ways can we spell the f phoneme? e.g. family / photograph/ sniff
Remember • A phoneme you hear • A grapheme you see
High Frequency Words (HFWs) These are common words that are useful for children to learn to read and spell. As children progress through the phases of Letters and Sounds they are introduced to sets of HFWs. Some words are decodable which children can blend to read e.g. then. Some are tricky words e.g. said, which are not phonically decodable and are learned by sight. • CVC words – Consonant-Vowel-Consonant These are simple words which children start with when they begin to blend sounds e.g. sat pin
Phase 1 • Children explore sounds and words and develop awareness of rhyme, rhythm and alliteration. They learn how to orally blend sounds and distinguish different sounds in words. • These are ongoing skills and it is very important that children are exposed to a rich variety of language from an early age. This can be through conversation, • nursery rhymes, stories, and games.
Phase 2 • Children are introduced to at least 19 letters and corresponding sounds. They begin to read and spell simple CVC words. They also begin to read High Frequency words.
Letter sets (phase 2 up to 6wks ) Set 1 - s, a, t, p, Set 2 - i, n, m, d, Set 3 - g, o, c, k, Set 4 - ck, e, u, r, Set 5 - h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss,
Phase 3 • Children learn one grapheme for a further 25 phonemes. These include consonant and vowel digraphs (e.g. ch, ng, ai, oa) and trigraphs (e.g. igh, air). They read and spell HFWs. • Throughout Phase 3,4 and 5 children will also be using ‘alien’ words, this is good practise for segmenting and blending sounds and will prepare Year 1 children for the phonics screening.
Phase 3 Graphemes: ear, air, ure, er, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ai, ee, igh, oa, oo Consonant digraphs: ch, sh, th, ng. Letter Progression: Set 6 - j, v, w, x Set 7 - y, z, zz, qu
Phase 4 • Children read and spell words containing consonant clusters.These are 2 or more consonants, but when put together, each can be heard as individual phonemes e.g. cl dr sk mp nd.Words containing these are known as CCVC and CVCC words. e.g. black, strip, chest). • Towards the end of Phase 4 they will also begin to work with compound words such as lunchbox, pondweed and handstand.
Phase 5 – the longest phase! • Children entering Phase 5will already be able to read and spell words with adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and flask. They will also be able to read and spell some polysyllabic words. • The purpose of this phase is for children to broaden their knowledge of graphemes and phonemes for use in reading and spelling.
Phase 5 continued • In Phase 5, children will learn alternative graphemes and phonemes. For example, they already know ai as in rain, but now they will be introduced to ay as in day and a-e as in make. • Alternative pronunciations for graphemes will also be introduced, e.g. ea in tea, head and break. • Phoneme spotter story!
Graphemes: ay, ou, ie, ea, oy, ir, ue, aw, wh, ph, ew, oe, au, a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e. Alternative graphemes for: i, o, c, g, u, ow, ie, ea, er, a, y, ch, ou
Phase 6 • Children apply their phonic skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of words. • They investigate and learn to add suffixes (eg; ing, ed, er, ly, ness) to words and to spell words in the past tense. • They learn the rules of adding ‘ed’ to a word and regular and irregular verbs. • They also look at superlative adjectives, contracted words and plurals.
Reading at phase 6 and beyond • Children should now be able to read hundreds of words, doing this in three ways: • Reading the words automatically if they are very familiar; • Decoding them quickly and silently because their sounding and blending routine is now well established; • Decoding them aloud. • The shift from learning to read to reading to learn takes place and children read for information and for pleasure.
Spelling at phase 6 and beyond • Children should be able to spell an increasing number of words accurately and choose the correct grapheme for a particular word. • They will also be encouraged to check and self correct their own work. • Be aware – spelling usually lags behind reading as it is harder.
Strategies for learning spellings • Syllables - break it into smaller bits to remember (e.g. Sep-tem-ber) • Base words - find its base word (e.g. Smiling = smile +ing, • Analogy - Use words that I already know to help (e.g. could: would, should) • Mnemonics - make up a sentence to help remember it (e.g. could – O U Lucky Duck; people – people eat orange peel like elephants)
Points to note:- The children always work within the phase that is appropriate to their level of learning. They are assessed regularly and groupings are sorted accordingly. It is very important that they can both spell the words and also apply this knowledge into all their writing across the curriculum.
How can you support your child? • In the front of your child’s reading record there is a list of phonemes and words that your child will be covering in the phase they are working on currently in school. • As part of the information to take home from today’s workshop, is a list of useful websites with games and resources to support phonics learning. • Use the information you have gathered today and try it out when reading with your child.