ii marketing analysis and planning n.
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  1. IIMARKETING ANALYSIS AND PLANNING Marketing Information Systems Marketing Decision Support Systems Market Analysis Competitive Analysis Environmental Scanning Marketing Segmentation, Niches and Micromarketing Consumer Behavior and Decision Processes Organizational Buying Behavior Positioning via Marketing

  2. Marketing Information System Set of procedures and sources used by marketing management on a regular and continuing basis to obtain information relevant to marketing planning and strategy

  3. The MarketingInformation System Marketing environment Test markets Marketing channels Competitors Publics Macro- environment forces Marketing Information System Marketing managers Analysis Planning Implement- tertian Control Developing information Marketing intelligence Internal records Assessing information needs Marketing decision support analysis Marketing research Distributing information Marketing decisions and communication

  4. Marketing Research The systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific issue or situation involving marketing planning and strategy

  5. The Marketing Research Process Define the problem and research objectives Develop the research plan Collect the informa- tion Analyze the informa- tion Present the findings

  6. Marketing Decision Support System Management science, computer-based models through which marketing management gathers and interprets relevant information and uses it to improve marketing actions Examples CALLPLAN : optimum number of sales calls PROMOTER: sales promotion effects measurment BRANDAID : marketing mix optimizing model

  7. Market AnalysisKey Constructs • Market • Target market • Market demand • Market share • Market segment • Market behavior

  8. Market Set of all actual and potential customers for an offering

  9. Target Market The part of the market any given firm seeks to pursue

  10. Market Demand The scale of the market measured in dollar volume, unit sales, number of customers, or some combination of these factors

  11. Market Share Sales of one particular firm’s product divided by total sales of all firms selling that same product

  12. Market Segment More homogeneous subset of a larger more heterogeneous market

  13. Market Behavior What, when , where, how, who, and why the market buys

  14. Who Does the Buying? • Who makes physical purchase? • Who uses the product? • Who influences the purchases decision? Consumer Markets (family unit) Industrial Markets (organization)

  15. Competitive Analysis In addition to analyzing markets (customer), firms also need to focus on competitors

  16. Five Forces Determining Segment Structural Attractiveness Potential Entrants (Threat of Mobility) Suppliers (Supplier power) Industry Competitors (Segment rivalry) Buyers (Buyer power) Substitutes (Threats of substitutes)

  17. Michael Porter on the Five Forces of Strategy

  18. Five Key Questions forAnalyzing Competitors • Who are our competitors? • What are their strategies? • What are their objectives? • What are their strengths and weaknesses? • What are their likely reaction patterns?

  19. Benchmarking The art of finding out how and why some companies can perform particular tasks much better than other companies Copy or improve upon: Best Practices or Best-in-Class

  20. Seven Steps in Benchmarking • Determine which tasks to benchmark • Stipulate key performance variables to measure • Identify the “best-in-class” companies • Measure performance of “best-in- class companies • Measure your company’s performance • Specify programs and actions to close the gap • Implement and monitor results

  21. Environmental Scanning Systematic evaluation of major external environmental factors that might affect the short, medium, and long-term marketing plans and strategies of the firm

  22. Key Environmental Terminology • Opportunities • Threats • Trends • Megatrends • Fads

  23. Market Segmentation,Niches andMicromarketing

  24. Market Segmentation Process of taking a large heterogeneous market and dividing it into smaller submarkets (segments) that are more homogeneous in their buying behaviors

  25. Market Aggregation The process of taking small diverse market segments and compiling them into a larger market that can be served with more standardized products or marketing mixes

  26. Market aggregation vs. Market SegmentationContinuum Perfect Market Aggregation Perfect Market Segmentation

  27. Market Segmentation Strategy The formulation of the marketing mix to respond to the particular needs of identified market segments

  28. Bases for Segmenting Markets • Demographic bases • Geographic bases • Psychographic bases (activities, interests, opinions AIO) • Behavioral bases benefits sought usage rates loyalty

  29. Requirements for Segmenting Markets • Measurable - operationally identifiable • Sustainable - large enough to be profitable • Accessible- can be reached and served • Differentiable - respond to different appeals • Actionable - can strategies be formulated

  30. Niche MarketingSub-segment of a market segmentwith low level of competition Micro Market Very small market segment resulting from fragmentation of mass markets and made feasible for targeting through by “mass customization” One-to-One MarketingMarketing by one seller to one buyer

  31. Consumer Behavior and Decision Processes

  32. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization (self-development and realization) 5. Esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition) 4. Social needs (sense of belonging, love) 3. Safety needs (security, protection) 2. Psychological needs (food, water, shelter) 1.

  33. Model of Buyer Behavior Buyer’s decision process Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Decision Postpurchase behavior Marketing stimuli Product Price Place Promotion Other stimuli Economic Technological Political Cultural Buyer’s characteristics Cultural Social Personal Psychological Buyer’s decisions Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

  34. Five-Stage Consumer Buyer Decision Process Problem recognition Information search Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior

  35. Major Influences on Industrial Buying Behavior • Level of • demand • Economic • outlook • Interest rate • Rate of techno- • logical change • Political and • regulatory • developments • Competitive • developments • Social responsi- • bility concerns Environmental • Objectives • Policies • Procedures • Organizational • structures • Systems Organizational • Interests • Authority • Status • Empathy • Persuasive- • ness Interpersonal • Age • Income • Education • Job position • Personality • Risk attitudes • Culture Individual Business Buyer

  36. Organizational BuyingSome Key Distinctions • fewer buyers • large buyers • close supplier-customer relationship • geographically concentrated • derived demand • inelastic demand (short run) • professional purchasing • multiple buying influences (buying centers) • more direct purchasing

  37. Positioning Designing an offering and its image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct place in customers’ minds relative to competitive products

  38. Positioning is a demandsideconcept not a supply side conceptTherefore Positioning is not what you do to a product but what you do to the mind of the customer