Chem 4 Introduction to Laboratory Safety and Hazardous Materials
Contents • Introduction • Life’s Hazards & Risk Assessment • The Question of Liability • Regulations and Regulatory Agencies • Hazards in the Laboratory • Safety Rules and Recommended Practices • Protective Equipment • Protective and Emergency Facilities • Responding to Emergencies • Reporting Incidents and Accidents • Introduction to Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology
GuidelinesAccidents and Incidents InvolvingStudents, University Personnel*, and General Public In the event of an injured party is discovered on University premises by University personnel, all reasonable care should be provided the injured party. This assistance would included, but not limited to: • the rendering of first aid (only by persons qualified to do so). • requesting of emergency medical aid on behalf of the injured party. Transportation should NEVER be performed by other than trained medical personnel unless an ambulance is unable to respond to a life-threatening situation.
Medical Attention for Injured Persons Any injured individuals should be urged to seek medical attention: • Students—Student Health Services • All others—physicians of their choice A "Student and General Public" injury form (UM-UW 200) should be completed. (See section 10-06 of the Business Policy and Procedure Manual). The form may be obtained from the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Administrative Services. The form should be forwarded immediately to the campus Office of Environmental Health/Risk Management for appropriate handling.
Medical Attention for Injured Persons Emergency Telephone Numbers University Police 4300 Health Services Infirmary 4284 UMR Safety Office 4305 Ambulance Service 4300 By dialing911or 3-911 you will reach the Rolla Police Department. Please refer to UM Business Policy and Procedure Manual. section 10-04. regarding Worker Compensation reporting and approved medical facilities.
The Five Principles of Safety • Practice Safety • Be concerned about the safety of others • Understand the hazards associated with any experiment you perform. • Know what to do in an emergency • Report hazards or hazardous conditions
See P.3 Effective Safety and Health Programs • Involve a regular review of fundamental ideas and practices. • Require a genuine concern about your own well-being and about the well-being of those around you.
Objectives(I) • We will see that there are: • A wide variety of hazards • chemical • Explosivity • Flammability • Reactivity • Toxicity • mechanical • electrical • pressure/vacuum
Objectives(II) • We will see that there are: • Ways that we can cope with these hazards. • Eliminate hazard, if possible. • Reduce risk by minimizing exposure. • Use protective measures & equipment. • Laws that are intended to protect us. • Numerous ways that we can protect ourselves.
Course Overview • You will learn about: • Chem. lab safety in particular. • Safe practices in general. • Handling & disposal of hazardous materials. • Health risks on & off the job.
Life's Hazards & Risk Assessment
See P. 9 Reasons for Discussing Life's Hazards • It places the problem of laboratory safety in a broader context. • It focuses attention on reasons for being concerned about laboratory safety. • It provides an opportunity to consider the difference between hazard and risk.
See P. 6 Types of Accidental Deaths and Injuries in the United States (1983) Cost Disabling (Billions Deaths Injuries of dollars) Motor vehicle44,600 1,600,00043.3 Work 11,300 1,900,00033.4 Home 20,000 3,000,00010.0 Public 19,500 2,500,0007.6 Total 91,000* 8,800,000*92.7* *Excludes duplicated motor vehicle data. Data from: "Accident Facts," National Safety Council, 1984.
See P. 7 Relative Frequency of Death as a Function of Age(Great Britain) Relative Frequency of Death 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age Group (years)
CHANGE LEADING CAUSES Of DEATH: U. S. - 2004 NUMBER OF % OF RANK CAUSE Of DEATH DEATHS TOTAL ALL DEATHS 2,397,615 100.0 1 DISEASES OF HEART 652,486 27.2 • MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS 553,888 23.1 • CEREBROVASCULAR 150,074 6.3 • CHRONIC LOW RESPIRATORY DISEASE 121,987 5.1 5 ACCIDENTS 112,012 4.7 6 DIABETES MELLITUS 73,138 3.1 7 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE 65,965 2.8 8 INFLUENZA & PNEUMONIA 59,664 2.5 9 NEPHRITIS 42,480 1.8 10 SEPTICEMIA 33,373 1.4 ALL OTHER CAUSES 532,548 22.2
See P. 8 Fatal Accident Frequency Rates (FAFR) • The fatal accident frequency rate (FAFR) is the predicted number of fatalities from 1000 persons spending 40 hours per week for 40 years in a particular activity (hazard) or the number of fatalities from 80 million man-hours of exposure.
See P. 8 Fatal Accident Frequency Rates (FAFR) for Various Activities in the United Kingdom (1971) Cause FAFR Rock climbing 4,000* Canoeing 1,000* Motor cycling 660* Motor scooter driving 310* Traveling by air 240* Pedal cycling 96* Traveling by car 60* Lung cancer (average) 5 Traveling by train 5* Traveling by bus 3* Staying at home 3* Influenza 2 Run over by motor vehicle 1 Taking oral contraceptives 0.2* Accidental aspirin poisoning 0.02 Lightning 0.001 Falling aircraft 0.0002
Hazard? Risk? • Hazard /’hæzed/ n. danger • Riskn. chance of injury or loss or bad consequence
See P. 9 The Distinction between Hazard and Risk • Example: 3,000 mile trip from Boston to Los Angeles • Time required for the trip: • Car at 50 mph: 60 hr • Air at 600 mph: 5 hr • Ratio of inherent hazard (using FAFR's): • 240 (air):60 (car) = 4:1 = 4 • This means that the number of fatalities per unit time of exposure is four times greater for air travel than for car travel. • Risk (relative hazard x exposure time): • Car: 1 x 60 hr = 60 • Air: 4 x 5 hr= 20 • Therefore the ratio of risk is: • Car:Air = 3:1 = 3
See P. 10 Industrial Fatal Accident Frequency Rates (FAFR) for Great Britain (1971) Cause FAFR Staying at home 3 Chemical industry 3.5 Steel industry 4 Fishing 8 Coal mining 35 Railway shunters 40 Construction workers 45 Air crew 250 Professional boxers 7,000 National hunt jockeys 50,000
See P. 11 Occupational Injury and Illness Incidence Rates for Various Industries in the United States (1983) Frequency Rates (Cases involving days Severity Rates Industry away from work or death) (Days away from work) Chemical 0.53 12 Aircraft 0.56 10 Textile 0.67 19 Oil and gas extraction 0.94 25 Communication 1.15 22 Wholesale and retail trade 1.75 28 Rubber and plastics 2.13 47 All industry average 2.20 41 Printing 2.57 53 Food 3.31 65 Construction 3.88 67 Meat products 4.11 75 Ship building 5.09 53 Trucking 5.78 118 Transit 7.96 111
See P. 13 Factors Increasing Chance of Deathby 1 Part per Million (or by .0001%)(I) FactorCause of Death Smoking 1.4 cigarettes Cancer, heart disease Drinking 0.5 liter of wine Cirrhosis of the liver Spending 1 hour in a coal mine Black lung disease 2 days in New York or Boston Air pollution Flying 6000 miles by jet Cancer (cosmic radiation) Living 2 months in Denver Cancer (cosmic radiation) Living 2 months in an average Cancer caused by natural stone or brick building radioactivity One chest x ray taken in a Cancer caused by good hospital radiation
See P. 13 Factors Increasing Chance of Death by 1 Part per Million (or by 0.0001%)(II) FactorCause of Death Living 2 months with a cigarette smoker Cancer, heart disease Eating 40 tablespoons of peanut butter Liver cancer caused by aflatoxin B Drinking Miami water for 1 year Cancer caused by chloroform Drinking 30 12 oz diet sodas Cancer caused by saccharin Living 5 years at the boundary Cancer caused by of a nuclear power plant radiation Living 20 years near a PVC plant Cancer (vinyl chloride) Living 150 years within 20 Cancer caused by miles of a nuclear power plant radiation Eating 100 charcoal broiled steaks Cancer from benzopyrene
See P. 17 Protection for Employees • Historically, employees were not protected. • They could not recover damages if they had contributed to the cause of the accident. • Employers could sue employees for destruction of company property. • Workmen's Compensation began in 1917. • It recognized the employer's responsibility while protecting the employer from suit. • It worked well for accidents but was difficult to apply for illness. • Today, the liability of the employer has increased. • The employer is responsible for employee health. • The employer must warn employees about health hazards.
See P. 16 Examples of Suits and Settlements • One Wisconsin workman's compensation case: • A married man is on special assignment in England. • He is having an affair with an English colleague. • The couple suffocates in her apartment due to a faulty gas heater. • The workman's compensation judge awards benefits to the man's widow citing the additional hazards in his foreign assignment.
See P. 19 Law Suits Against Schools and Colleges(I) • Peroxide explosion: • A graduate student lost an eye when an ether he was distilling exploded. • The chemical manufacturer was found liable for failure to provide adequate warning on the label. • The award was about $800,000.
See P. 19 Law Suits Against Schools and Colleges(II) • Methanol fire: • A junior high student was injured in a fire resulting from the use of a methanol burner. • The publisher of the lab manual was found negligent for failure to provide adequate warning. • The award was over $700,000
See P. 19 Law Suits Against Schools and Colleges(III) • Rocket fuel explosion: • Two college students stole chemicals from the stockroom to make rocket fuel. • One day the fuel exploded injuring both students. • The more seriously injured student sued both the college and the other student. • Both were found liable, and the award was $170,000.
Regulations And Regulatory Agencies
See P. 121 EPA Regulations Before 1975 • 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act: • Known as Clean Water Act. • Covers drain disposal of chemicals. • 1954 Atomic Energy Act: • Authority now resides primarily with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. • Three sets of regulations: • Standards for protection against radiation. • Environmental radiation protection standards for nuclear power operations. • Interim primary drinking water regulations.
See P. 121 EPA Regulations Before 1975 • 1963 Clean Air Act: • Establishes levels for chemicals and particulates. • Can regulate hazardous chemicals. • 1972 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act: • Requires registration of agents with EPA. • Requires clear labeling and warnings. • 1972 Noise Control Act • 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act • Gives EPA authority to formulate and enforce drinking water standards. • Covers flushing chemicals down the drain.
See P. 122 EPA Regulations After 1975 • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) • Regulates the disposal of solid wastes. • Affects storage, packaging, labeling, shipment, and disposal methods. • For more information: "RCRA and Laboratories," ACS Department of Public Affairs, single copies without charge. • 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA) • Gives EPA authority to control substances that are shown to cause unreasonable risk to public health or the environment. • Manufacturers must show that new materials are safe. • Establishes the Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) to recommend when further testing is necessary.
See P. 122 EPA Regulations After 1975 • 1983 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) • Mandates the establishment of financial requirements for classes of facilities. • Owners need to establish and maintain evidence of financial responsibility. • 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) • Prompts counties to form emergency planning committees. • Provides communities with the 'right-to-know' about stored hazardous chemicals.
See P. 115 Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration Objectives • To encourage employers and employees to reduce hazards in the workplace and to implement new or to improve existing safety and health programs. • To establish "responsibilities and rights" for both employers and employees. • To establish reporting and record keeping procedures that monitor job related injuries and illnesses. • To develop mandatory job safety and health standards and to enforce them effectively. • To encourage each state to establish and administer its own health and safety programs.
See P. 116 OSHA Priorities • Investigate deaths and major accidents. • Inspect the most hazardous industries. • Respond to written requests from employers and employees: • OSHA notifies the employer of the complaint and requests information. • An inspection is made if no reply is received within 30 days.
See P. 117 Most Common OSHA Violations Found in Chemical Laboratories • Lecture bottles stored in hoods. • Mercury in hoods and on floors. • Inadequate take up air. • Dry sinks in hoods. • Reagents stored in hoods and cabinets. • Poor air flow at hood face. • Unsecured gas cylinders. • No eyewash or showers. • Improper storage of flammable liquids. • No guards on vacuum pump belts.
See P. 118 Safety Problems Found in Academic Chemistry Laboratories by OSHA Type Inspections(I) • Improper electrical wiring: • Ungrounded equipment (3 wire plugs). • Overloaded circuits (excessive extension cords, improper fusing). • Inappropriate high voltage shielding. • Unguarded belt and pulley assemblies, saw blades and buffer wheels. • Improper storage of bulk chemicals: • Stockroom • Design of shelves, air handling system, fire equipment • Ungrounded bulk solvent drums • Laboratories research and instructional • Excessive volumes of solvents • Lack of metal safety cans and approved storage cabinets • Lack of explosion proof refrigerators
See P. 118 Safety Problems Found in Academic Chemistry Laboratories by OSHA Type Inspections(II) • Inadequate ventilation and exhaust hood flow velocity. • Lack of eyewash fountain and safety shower. • Miscellaneous problem areas: • Waste disposal. • Storage and use of gas cylinders. • Poor housekeeping practices. • Inadequate safety signs. • Inadequate shields for individual experiments. • Blockage of escape routes between research areas.
See P. 120 OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard(I) • January 1981, Carter Administration proposes Chemical Labeling Standard. • February 1981, Reagan Administration withdraws proposal under pressure over protection of trade secrets. • State and cities develop "Right To Know" legislation.
See P. 120 OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard(II) • November 1983, OSHA issues Hazard Communication Standard. • Provisions: • To evaluate hazards of all chemicals produced, imported, or used with the US manufacturing sector. • To transmit this information to affected employers and employees. • To require hazard labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and training. • Organized labor is concerned that only about fifty percent of the workforce will be covered. • Those states who have enacted their own laws are exempt provided that their laws are at least as stringentas OSHA's laws.
OSHA's Laboratory Standard • January 1990, the Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories standard is published. • January 1991, Lab Standard became effective with the following provisions: • Each lab is to develop a chemical hygiene plan to protect persons from overexposure. • Provide MSDS's, other information, and training to all lab personnel. • Ensure that all hazardous material containers bear appropriate labels, and be maintained.
See P. 20 Three Basic Concepts of Laboratory Safety • Know the hazards before you do the experiment. • Answer three questions: • What prudent practices, safety equipment, and protection facilities are needed to minimize exposure to the anticipated hazards? • What are the worst accidents that can happen? • What must I do to be prepared? • Try to make health and safety an integral and important part of your work.
Specific Definitions Hazardous Chemical- Any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard Health Hazard- Any chemical where there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed workers Physical Hazard- Chemical that is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water reactive
Chemical Mechanical Electrical Radiation Biological Pressure and vacuum operations Noise Physical See P. 24 Types of Hazards
See P. 29 Reducing the Risk • Do the potential benefits of the experiment outweigh the risks? • Can less hazardous chemicals be substituted? • Can the reaction be scaled down by a factor of ten or one hundred? • Can diluted solutions be used?
See P. 24 Reduction of Risk • Obey safety rules and follow recognized prudent practices. • Install facilities to minimize exposure. • Use personal protective equipment. • Eliminate the hazard.
See P. 25 Chemical Toxicity • Toxicity is the ability of a chemical to act as a poison. • Effects can be immediate (acute) or long-term (chronic). • Routes of entry are inhalation, contact or ingestion.