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Nonfiction Read Aloud

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  1. Nonfiction Read Aloud October 16, 2012 & October 30, 2012 Jennifer Gondek Instructional Specialist for Inclusive Education jgondek@tstboces.org http://inclusiveed.wikispaces.com

  2. Please reflect on the 2 questions on page 2 of your packet. Make a few notes to share out later today.

  3. Whip-Around • Name • Grade level • Share out a nonfiction text you brought today and why it’s a favorite

  4. Session Objectives: Participants will: • Understand the difference between a Traditional Read Aloud and Interactive Read Aloud • Explain the benefits of using informational text for IRA • Connect elements of the Interactive Read Aloud to the Common Core Learning Standards • Determine appropriate informational texts for read aloud at a given grade level • Create a CCLS aligned lesson plan for IRA using an informational text. • Share resources and strategies for implementation of an IRA in the K-5 classroom • Plan for generalization of strategies through integration of additional informational texts throughout the classroom schedule

  5. A Clarification What is the difference between informational genres and nonfiction? According to Fountas and Pinnell, “Informational genres are “a category of texts in which the purpose is to inform or give facts about a topic. Nonfiction feature articles and essays are examples of informational text” (page 247). Nonfiction is “a text based on fact” (page 248).

  6. Specific types of non-fiction Almanac Autobiography Biography Blueprint Book report Creative nonfiction Design document Diagram Diary Dictionary Nonfiction films Encyclopedia Essay Guides and manuals Handbook History Journal (disambiguation) Journalism Letter Literary criticism Memoir Natural history Philosophy Photograph Research paper Science book Scientific paper Statute Textbook Travelogue

  7. Why nonfiction?

  8. Why Interactive Read aloud?

  9. A Definition • According to Fountas and Pinnell, Interactive Read-Aloud is “A teaching context in which students are actively listening and responding to an oral reading of a text.” --The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades K-2. A Guide to Teaching, page 163.

  10. Motivating Reluctant Readers through Nonfiction Read-Alouds presented by Dawn Little, M.Ed., Links to Literacy Read-Aloud vs. Interactive Read-Aloud Read Aloud Interactive Read Aloud • Teacher reads aloud for pleasure • Students listen, but are not expected to participate • Listening comprehension occurs, but is not assessed • Teacher reads aloud with a purpose • Students listen and reflect orally or through writing • Listening comprehension occurs and is assessed

  11. Benefits of Interactive Read Aloud: • Vocabulary development • Acquisition of syntax • Sensitivity to formats of informational text • Gains in expressive language • Models strategic thinking • Introduces new concepts • Indulges curiosity • Helps students understand their world

  12. Interactive Read Aloud Supports: • Literature Study-Book Clubs • Reading Mini-lessons • Independent Reading • Guided Reading • Writing Mini-lessons • Independent Writing

  13. Connection To the Common core

  14. CCLS: Shift 1 Balancing Informational and Literary Texts

  15. Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework

  16. Record of Reading:

  17. Record of Reading:

  18. Appendix B: • Informational Text vs. • Informational Text for Read Aloud • Samples of text exemplars • Sample performance tasks linked to CCLS

  19. Shift 2 Knowledge in the Disciplines

  20. Shift 3 Staircase of Complexity • Growth “steps” for each grade level • Grade appropriate text at the center of instruction • Close and careful reading with scaffolded supports for students reading below level.

  21. From Reading Between the Lines http://act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/reading_summary.pdf

  22. The Domino Theory Teach children to decode first, and put off vocabulary and comprehension instruction until later.

  23. “If we want children to reason their ways through texts during a time when they cannot yet read, then the social context for comprehension acquisition must be a read-aloud of text.” (p. 144) Smolkin & Donovan, 2002.

  24. Shift 4 Text-Based Evidence • Rich and rigorous conversations • Dependent on the text • Classroom experiences connected to text • Evidentiary arguments

  25. Shift 5 Writing from Sources • Using Evidence To: • Inform • Make arguments • Respond to ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in text

  26. Shift 6 Academic Vocabulary • Pivotal and commonly found words • Build vocabulary to access grade • level complex text Tier 2

  27. Selecting Quality Texts: • Factors for Consideration: • Length of the text and time required to read it. • Your student’s background knowledge • Your student’s experience in listening to texts. • Topics of interest to the age level. • Accessibility of concepts to the age level. • Maturity of themes and ideas • Density of the text • Accessibility of illustrations • Complexity and Accessibility of language • Appeal to the age group • Opportunities to connect with other texts/content • (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006) • http://inclusiveed.wikispaces.org

  28. Understanding the Demands of NF • Factors for Consideration: • Genre • Text Structure • Content • Themes and Ideas • Language and Literary Features • Sentence Complexity • Vocabulary • Words • Illustrations • Book and Print Features • (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)

  29. Choose a new text. Discuss it in terms of appeal to students. Use the 10 factors to analyze the text on page 7 of your packet.

  30. Choose a new text to explore. Discuss it in terms of appeal to students. Use the “Questions to Ask About Factual Texts” form to guide your discussion on page 8 of your packet.

  31. Preparing for Interactive Read Aloud: • Plan ahead! • Read the text yourself • Examine the text • Note a few targeted opportunities to model (think aloud!) comprehension strategies/skills. • Note a few targeted opportunities (post-its!) to stop for text talk. • Determine vocabulary words to be taught. (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)

  32. Setting for an Interactive Read Aloud: • Students must be comfortably seated • Everyone should be able to hear/see • Procedure in place for turn and talks/group discussion (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)

  33. Think Aloud Guided Practice Turn and Talks Immediate Feedback Making Thinking Public Planning All Teacher Teacher + Students All Students Authentic Context Simple Context Modeling Complex Context Assessmemt Sharing Cognitive Secrets Immediate Feedback Authentic Task Conceptual Model:Gradual Release of Responsibility* *Pearson, P.D., & Gallagher, M.C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317-344.

  34. Gradual Release of Responsibility Think Aloud Practice Turn & Talk Independent

  35. Structure of an Interactive Read-Aloud • Selection and Preparation • Opening • Reading Aloud • Embedded Teaching • Text Talk • Discussion and Self-Evaluation • Record of Reading • Written Response (optional, but strongly recommended) (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)

  36. Comprehension Strategy Focus for Lesson Components: (Santoro, Chard, Howard & Baker, 2008)

  37. Nonfiction Read Aloud (Part 2) March 13, 2012 Jennifer Gondek Instructional Specialist for Inclusive Education jgondek@tstboces.org http://inclusiveed.wikispaces.com

  38. Welcome Back! Exploration Time Browse the room. Choose one text (book or article) to work with for the rest of the session. This can be a book you brought, or a new title.

  39. Structure of an Interactive Read-Aloud • Selection and Preparation • Opening • Reading Aloud • Embedded Teaching • Text Talk • Discussion and Self-Evaluation • Record of Reading • Written Response (optional, but strongly recommended) (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)

  40. Opening Moves: “Engage the students’ interest and activate thinking in various ways” -Fountas & Pinnell, 2006

  41. Opening Moves:

  42. Opening Moves:

  43. Opening Moves:

  44. Opening Moves: Using the Opening Moves chart as a reference, create 2-3 opening moves for the text you have chosen.

  45. Vocabulary

  46. The Vocabulary Catch-22 Children need to learn more words to read well, but they need to read well to learn more words. McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers. Perspectives, 30(1), 13-16.

  47. The Matthew Effect # of Words in Child’s Vocabulary 45,000 17,000 50K 40K 30K 20K 10K 0 5,000 1,500 K 12 Grade Level

  48. Why Wide Reading Why Wide Reading Is Enough Is Not Enough Context is generally unreliable as a means of inferring word meanings. Most words occur too infrequently to provide the number of exposures needed to learn them. Vocabulary size and the amount a child reads are correlated. Direct instruction cannot possibly account for the number of word meanings children acquire. Marzano, R.J. (2004). The developing vision of vocabulary instruction. In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 100-117). New York: Guilford.

  49. Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later. Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934-945.

  50. “Adding three root words a day is the average daily number of words learned by primary age children with the largest vocabularies.” (p. 37) Andy Biemiller Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades. In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp.28-40). New York: Guilford.