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Grammar Workshop

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Grammar Workshop

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  1. Grammar Workshop English Grammar Lessons Agenda & Notes

  2. Friday 9/6/13 • 10 Minutes of SSR • TGIF—Thank Grammar it’s Friday!!! • A Review of the Parts of Speech • Area of Focus: • Nouns • Complete the practice sheet—you may turn it in if you finish by the end of class; otherwise, it is due on Monday.

  3. Common Core Standard: Learning Target Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English Grammar and Usage when writing or speaking.

  4. Lesson # 1: Nouns A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. PERSONS: brother, scientist, Rita, Governor Lee PLACES: porch, stadium, Chicago, Africa THINGS: television, cactus, hurricane, Holland Tunnel IDEAS: truth, democracy, ability, safety

  5. Common and Proper Nouns A common noun is a general name for a person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Capitalize proper nouns. Common nouns (general) man------------------ holiday--------------- language------------ city------------------- Proper nouns (particular) Albert Einstein, Michael Jordan Labor Day, Presidents’ Day Spanish, English, French, Miami, London, Dallas, Beijing

  6. Singular and Plural Nouns • Singular nouns name one person, place, thing, or idea. • Plural nouns name more than one. To make most nouns plural, add –s or –es to the singular form. • SINGULAR NOUNS • award horse knife coach woman • PLURAL NOUNS • awards horses knives coaches women

  7. Collective Nouns • A collective noun names a group—people or things that are regarded as a unit. • COLLECTIVE NOUNS • tribe, litter, flock, committee, batch

  8. Concrete and Abstract Nouns • A concrete noun names something perceptible to the senses—something that can be seen, heard, smelled, touched, or tasted. • An abstract noun names something that cannot be perceived through the senses, such as an idea, quality, emotion, or state. • An abstract noun names something that you can think about but cannot see or touch. • CONCRETE NOUNS • coin, hand, fire, computer • ABSTRACT NOUNS • jealousy, freedom, laziness

  9. Compound Nouns A compound noun consists of two or more words used together as a single noun. A compound noun may be written as one word, as two words, or as a hyphenated word. As one word bookcase candlelight Sunshine As two words ice cream New York attorney general Hyphenated great-grandmother one-third father-in-law

  10. Possessive Nouns • A possessive noun shows ownership or belonging. Add an apostrophe and s to a singular noun to make it possessive. • Kenny Chesney’s first CD, a dog’s bark • Add only an apostrophe to a plural noun ending in s to make it possessive. • horses’ manes, book-lovers’ delight

  11. Practice: Find all of the nouns. Architects design monuments dedicated to the memory of important people and events. The beauty of a city is determined by the quality of its architecture. A society’s architecture reflects the values of its people. In the Southwest, missionaries built churches of adobe that combined the styles of Spain and the American Indians. The Industrial Revolution created a demand for new types of buildings.

  12. Identify each noun: concrete noun, proper noun, abstract noun, possessive noun, or compound noun. 1. Owl Creek Bridge _______________ 2. colors _______________ 3. gnats _______________ 4. dewdrops _______________ 5. Ambrose Bierce _______________ 6. water-spiders’ _______________ 7. oars _______________ 8. love _______________ 9. dragon-flies’ _______________ 10. rush (of adrenaline) _______________

  13. Lesson Summary Common noun: general name for a person, place, thing, or idea (city) Proper noun: name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea (Dallas) Collective noun: name of a group regarded as a unit (council) Concrete Noun: name of something perceptible by the senses (desk) Abstract noun: name of an idea, quality, or state (love) Compound noun: single noun formed from two or more words (streetlight) Possessive noun: noun that shows ownership or relationship (dog’s tail; dogs’ tail)

  14. Lesson Summary Common noun: general name for a person, place, thing, or idea (city) Proper noun: name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea (Dallas) Collective noun: name of a group regarded as a unit (council) Concrete Noun: name of something perceptible by the senses (desk) Abstract noun: name of an idea, quality, or state (love) Compound noun: single noun formed from two or more words (streetlight) Possessive noun: noun that shows ownership or relationship (dog’s tail; dogs’ tail)

  15. Friday 9/13/13 • TGIF!! Grammar Workshop: Area of focus: • Pronouns—review • Common Core Standard: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English Grammar and Usage when writing or speaking. • 10 Minutes of SSR will take place at the end of class 6th Period starts at 1:00 8th Period Starts at 2:50 • Complete the handout—due by Monday 9/16/13

  16. Pronoun/Antecedent A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or another pronoun. The word that a pronoun stands for is called its antecedent. It may be found in the same sentence or in an earlier sentence. Jasmine is celebrating her birthday. She is 17. ANTECEDENTPRONOUNS

  17. Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns refer to the first person (I), second person (you), and third person (he, she, it). SPEAKER SPOKEN TO SPOKEN ABOUT I think you should be nicer to him.

  18. Personal Pronouns • A personal pronoun has three cases that indicate how it is used in a sentence: nominative, objective, and possessive. • Thenominative case is used for subjects and predicate nominatives. • The objective case is used for objects of verbs and prepositions. • The possessive case is used to show ownership or belonging. NOMINATIVE OBJECTIVE POSSESSIVE • She let me borrow her helmet.

  19. Personal Pronouns Nominative Objective Possessive 1st Person I, we me, us my, mine, our, ours (speaker) 2nd Person you you yours (spoken to) 3rd Person he, she, it, they him, her, it his, her, hers them its, their, theirs

  20. Gender Personal pronouns in the third-person singular also have gender. These pronouns are masculine, feminine, or neutral, depending on whether they refer to a male, a female, or a thing. A pronoun has to match the person, number, and gender of its antecedent.

  21. Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun shows ownership or belonging. The following possessive pronouns are used to replace possessive nouns: mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs (ex) That bike is mine. (ex) The bike carrier is ours. The following possessive pronouns are used as adjectives to modify nouns: my, your, his, her, its, our, their The possessive pronoun his can be used both ways. (ex) That is my map. (ex) That is his compass.

  22. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Both reflexive and intensive pronouns are formed by adding–self or –selves to a personal pronoun. Although these two types of pronouns look identical, they are used in different ways. A reflexive pronoun reflects an action back on a preceding noun or pronoun. Kim helped herself to seconds of every buffet item. (helped is the action being reflected)

  23. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun in the same sentence. No one asked the doctor herself if she needed help. First Person: myself; ourselves Second Person: yourself; yourselves Third Person: himself, herself, itself; themselves

  24. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Is it a reflexive or an intensive pronoun? If it can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence, then it’s an intensive pronoun. Sara herself went to the game. Sara herself went to the game. HOT TIP!!

  25. Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question. who whom which what whose Whose wallet is this? What can we do while it rains?

  26. Demonstrative Pronouns • A demonstrative pronoun points out specific persons, places, things, or ideas. • This and these point out persons or things that are near in space or time. • That and those point out persons or things that are more distant in space or time. • Demonstrative pronouns may come before or after their antecedents. • Did you get her new CD? I’m dying to hear that. ANTECEDENT • Read the instructions, even those in small print. ANTECEDENT

  27. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. who whom which whose that SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Schliemann was the archaeologist who discovered Troy.

  28. Indefinite Pronouns • An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a specific person or thing. • Someone left the phone off the hook. • The snowstorm closed most of the schools

  29. Common Indefinite Pronouns Singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something Plural: both, few, many, several Plural & Singular: all, any, more, most, none, some

  30. Practice Exercises Most of the cartoonists do not draw people as they really appear. These are artists who tend to exaggerate some of the features of a person. Most of us are familiar with comic strips, but what is an editorial cartoon? Editorial cartoons encourage their readers to develop an opinion about someone or something in the news. Editorial cartoonists themselves have strong feelings about their topics.

  31. Pronoun Summary Personal: I, you, he, she, it, they, them, her, him, us, we, me Possessive: my, mine, our, ours, her, hers, his, their, theirs, your, yours Reflexive: reflects action back to noun: ends in –self/-selves Intensive: emphasizes a noun/pronoun; also ends in -self/-selves Interrogative: asks questions: who, whom, whose, which, what Demonstrative: this, that, these, those Relative: who, whom, which, whose, that Indefinite: not specific: someone, most, many, somebody, something, neither, everyone, everybody, nobody, no one, nothing, both, few, several, all, any, more, some, none, one, much, either, each, anyone, anybody, anything

  32. Pronoun Summary Personal: I, you, he, she, it, they, them, her, him, us, we Possessive: my, mine, our, ours, her, hers, his, their, theirs, your, yours Reflexive: reflects action back to noun: ends in –self/-selves Intensive: emphasizes a noun/pronoun; also ends in -self/-selves Interrogative: asks questions: who, whom, whose, which, what Demonstrative: this, that, these, those Relative: who, whom, which, whose, that Indefinite: not specific: someone, most, many, somebody, something, neither, everyone, everybody, nobody, no one, nothing, both, few, several, all, any, more, some, none, one, much, either, each, anyone, anybody, anything

  33. Friday 9/13/13 • TGIF!! Grammar Workshop: Area of focus: • Verbs—review • Common Core Standard: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English Grammar and Usage when writing or speaking. • 10 Minutes of SSR will take place at the end of class 2ndPeriod starts at 9:30 3rdPeriod Starts at 10:22 4th Period Starts at 11:15 • Complete the handout—due by Monday 9/16/13

  34. Verbs A verb is a word used to express action, condition, or a state of being. The two main categories of verbs are action verbs and linking verbs.

  35. Action Verbs An action verb expresses an action. That action may be physical or mental. PHYSICAL ACTION :wince, create, gallop, steal, chew MENTAL ACTION: visualize, believe, recall, desire, know

  36. Linking Verbs • A linking verb connects the subject with a word or words that identify or describe the subject. It can connect the subject with a noun, the predicate nominative. • Judge Bianca is also a professor of law. (T) • A linking verb can also connect the subject to a pronoun or an adjective in the predicate. • Michelle felt ill after the barbecue. (I) • The decision remains his, and his alone. (T)

  37. Most linking verbs are forms of be. am, is, are, was, were, being, be, can be, may be, might be, will be, could be, would be, must be, has been, have been, had been, shall have been, could have been, would have been, will have been Forms of be appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn Other common linking verbs

  38. Forms of be • Forms of be are always linking verbs when used as the main verb. • Form of be: We were so hungry. (I) • Some verbs can also be used as linking verbs. • The veggie burgers tasted scrumptious. (I) • Some verbs can function as both action and linking verbs. • Used as action verb: We grew pumpkins in the fall. • Used as linking verb: The laborer grew hungry. Acts on Links

  39. Is it a linking verb or an action verb? It's a linking verb if it can be replaced by a form of the verb be and still make sense. Example: It sounds loud. It is loud.

  40. Auxiliary Verbs • Auxiliary verbs, also called helping verbs, help the main verb express action or make a statement. • He may have driven by himself. (main verb: driven) (T) • Auxiliary verbs help indicate voice, mood, or tense. • She will drive tomorrow. (indicates future tense) (I) • A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more auxiliary verbs. • She had driven the last two days. (I)

  41. Common Auxiliary Verbs am are has does can might is be had did could shall was being have will may should were been do would must Many contractions are formed by combining an auxiliary verb with a pronoun or the word not (I’ll, don’t). In such cases, remember tobreak apart the contraction in order to identify which part is the verb (I’ll = I will, don’t = do not).

  42. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs • Action verbs may be transitive or intransitive. • A transitive verb transfers the action from the subject toward a direct object. The direct object will always follow the verb. • A group of volunteers painted a mural on the wall. • An intransitive verb does not transfer action so it does not have an object. • I waited patiently. (I)—patiently is an adverb—not an object—direct objects are a person, place, or idea. • I waited for the train. (T)-- Direct Object

  43. Transitive/Intransitive Verbs Tip: After you have located the verb in the sentence, ask “who, or “what”. If there is an answer after the verb and that answer is a noun—then it is transitive and the noun is the direct object. We drove the new car to the store. “Drove” is the verb, drove what? Car—car is a noun and therefore, is the direct object, so drove is a transitive verb. We drove slowly to the store. Again “drove” is the verb, drove who or what?—there is no answer to this; therefore, the verb in this case is intransitive.

  44. Well-chosen verbs can make your writing more vigorous and interesting. Bighorn sheep clung to the canyon walls above the river, and bison trailed across the floodplain. Fresh grizzly tracks punctured the mud at a melting snow bank’s edge. But the creature that held my attention here in Yellowstone National Park was the one that seemed to be talking to itself. Hunched among the pine branches, it gabbled, growled, and mewled without pause. At times the voice resembled liquid gurgling through a pipe. Then it became a drum and, soon after, a rattle. I felt as if I’d happened upon a shaman in the midst of his prayers. . . . I don’t mean to make this sound too mysterious. The birds were only common ravens. —Douglas H. Chadwick, “Ravens”

  45. Adjectives and Adverbs • Adjectives and adverbs are modifiers—they describe other words in a sentence. • An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. • MODIFIES PRONOUN They can be intimidating. • MODIFIES NOUN Hawaii has titanic waves.

  46. An adjective qualifies or specifies the meaning of the noun it modifies. It answers one of these questions: WHAT KIND? silver ornaments, huge serving, lively writing WHICH ONE? this fossil, another book, those computers HOW MANY? three rings, some exhibitors, few volunteers HOW MUCH? enough help, abundant harvest, little chance

  47. Nouns, pronouns, and even articles can function as adjectives, modifying the nouns they precede. • Nouns as Adjectives • mouse pad business letter tuna fish salad • Possessive Pronouns as Adjectives • his portfolio our Web site their supervisor • Demonstrative Pronouns as Adjectives • that application this uniform those menus • Articles • an undertaking a game the one I want

  48. Proper Adjectives Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns. They are always capitalized, as are proper nouns. Proper Nouns Proper Adjectives America American Canada Canadian Jefferson Jeffersonian

  49. Predicate Adjectives Predicate adjectives follow linking verbs and modify the subject of a sentence. Unlike most adjectives, predicate adjectives are separated from the words they modify. My cat is unpredictable. The parakeet looks nervous.

  50. Adverbs • An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. • MODIFIES ADVERB The waves crash very dangerously. • MODIFIES VERB Yet surfers ride them gracefully. • MODIFIES ADJECTIVE It’s quite beautiful.