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Table of Contents Chapter: Exploring and Classifying Life Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Living Things Section 3: Where does life come from? Section 4: How are living thingsclassified?
What is science? 1 The Work of Science • Science - An organized way of studying things and finding answers to questions.
What is science? 1 Types of Science • Physics – Relationship between energy and matter • Biology – Study of Living things • Botanists – Plants • Zoologists - Animals
What is science? 1 Critical Thinking • Identify and solve problems
What is science? 1 Solving Problems • Scientific Method - series of procedures to solve problems
What is science? 1 Solving Problems
What is science? 1 Controls • Control - Standard to which the outcome of a test is compared. • Variable - Thing in an experiment that can change.
What is science? 1 Report Results • Share information
What is science? 1 Developing Theories • Theory – explanation based on scientific knowledge • Result of many observations and experiments.
What is science? 1 Laws • Law - Statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true all the time. • Less likely to change than theories.
What is science? 1 Measuring with Scientific Units
What is science? 1 Measuring with Scientific Units • Called the International System of Units, or SI.
What is science? 1 Safety First • Laboratory safety – Requirement of the Class Click image to view movie.
Section Check 1 Question 1 This diagram shows a way to use scientific methods to solve a problem. According to the diagram, if a hypothesis is not supported by data then you should _______.
Section Check 1 • change the data so that • they do support the • hypothesis • B. find a different problem to • solve • C. propose a scientific theory • D. revise the hypothesis and • perform new experiments
Section Check 1 Answer The correct answer is D. Scientific methods are an organized way to solve a problem in science. This series of procedures involves forming a hypothesis that can be tested.
Section Check 1 Question 2 What is the definition of a control in a scientific experiment? Answer A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test will be compared. Controls help you determine how to interpret your data.
Section Check 1 Question 3 A statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true all the time is a _______. A. conclusion B. hypothesis C. law D. variable
Section Check 1 Answer The correct answer is C. Although laws can be modified as more information becomes known, they are less likely to change than theories.
Living Things 2 What are living things like? • Organism - living thing. • Have similar traits.
Living Things 2 Living Things Are Organized • Cell- Smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life.
Living Things 2 Living Things Respond • Interact with surroundings. • Stimulus – Causes change • Response – Reaction to stimulus
Living Things 2 Living Things Respond • Homeostasis - Ability to maintain internal stability
Living Things 2 Living Things Use Energy • All energy comes from the Sun
Living Things 2 Living Things Use Energy
Living Things 2 Living Things Grow and Develop • Growth - Increase in number of cells or size of cells • Development – Physiological Changes
Living Things 2 Living Things Reproduce • Organisms create offspring to maintain a population
Living Things 2 A Place to Live • Surroundings provide for all an organism’s needs.
Living Things 2 Raw Materials • You are made of 60 to 70 percent water.
Living Things 2 Raw Materials • Organisms – Made mostly of proteins, fats, and sugars. • Materials – Recycled when organisms die
Section Check 2 Question 1 What is the smallest unit in a cat that carries on the functions of life? Answer The cell is the smallest unit. All organisms are composed of cells. Cells take in materials from their surroundings and use them in complex ways.
Section Check 2 Question 2 Pulling your hand back when you accidentally touch a hot pan on the stove is an example of what characteristic of living things? A. growth and development B. organization C. reproduction D. response to stimuli
Section Check 2 Answer The correct answer is D. The hot pan is an example of a stimulus. Living things can respond to both external and internal stimuli.
Section Check 2 Question 3 Give an example of two raw materials that you need to survive. Answer Some possible answers include: water, food, and oxygen. Some bacteria and plants can make food from raw materials in their surroundings.
Where does life come from? 3 Life Comes from Life • Spontaneousgeneration – Original theory that organisms came from nonliving sources • Biogenesis - Living things come only from other living things
Section Check 3 Question 1 This diagram shows an experiment Louis Pasteur conducted with boiled broth and S-necked flasks. Why did microbes only grow in the bottom flask?
Section Check 3 Answer Microbes from the air settled out at the bottom of the S-neck and only entered the broth when it was tilted so that the broth touched this area. This experiment by Pasteur helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation.
Section Check 3 Question 2 Which one of the following examples supports the theory of biogenesis? A. kittens are produced from cats B. milk is produced by cows C. rain is produced by rain clouds D. stimuli produce responses
Section Check 3 Answer The correct answer is A. The theory of biogenesis states that living things come only from other living things.
Section Check 3 Question 3 What did Alexander Oparin suggest about Earth’s early atmosphere?
Section Check 3 Answer He suggested that it contained no oxygen but was made up of the gases ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and water vapor. He hypothesized that these gases could have combined to produce compounds found in living things.
How are living things classified? 4 Classification • Classification - Organizing things into groups.
How are living things classified? 4 History of Classification • Aristotle – Organized organisms into plants and Animals • Animals - hair or no hair, four legs or few legs, and blood or no blood.
How are living things classified? 4 Linnaeus • Carolus Linnaeus – Grouped organisms based on similarities
How are living things classified? 4 Modern Classification • Scientists study • Fossils • Hereditary information • Early stages of development. • Phylogeny- Evolutionary history of an organism (How it has changed over time)
How are living things classified? 4 Six Kingdoms • A kingdom is the first and largest category.
How are living things classified? 4 Six Kingdoms • Species- Organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
How are living things classified? 4 Binomial Nomenclature • Binomial nomenclature • Two-word naming system • Developed by Linnaeus
How are living things classified? 4 Binomial Nomenclature • Genus- group of similar species. • Species – a group of organisms that produce • fertile offspring