AGE222-INTRODUCTION TO FARM MACHINERY-2UNITS MACHINE ELEMENTS: Shafts, belts, chains and gears are the major types of power transmission machine elements. We shall be introduced to these machine elements and learn about their functions. Shaft, is a rotating machine component that transmits power or it transmits rotational motion and power. Full description and operation as follows: Gears, are toothed, cylindrical wheels used for transmitting motion and power from one rotating shaft to another. Description and operation follows: Belt Drives and Chain Drives, are the major types of flexible power transmission elements. Belts operate on pulleys or sheaves, whereas chains operate on toothed wheels, sprockets
OBJECTIVES OF FARM MECHANIZATION • Definition: It is all forms of mechanical assistance at all levels of sophistication. Usually it involves an injection of capital usually labour augmenting. Mechanization objectives in the context of agricultural development strategy are: • Agricultural productivity to increase the sector’s contribution to economic growth and security. • Increase rural welfare: incomes, employment, living standards, alleviating poverty. • Achieving social modernisation; attitudes and behaviour.
Mechanization decisions need to consider: • Farm power requirements to increase agricultural productivity. • Appropriate technology choice. Mechanization as a means of increasing productivity needs to: • Increase employment opportunities, • Increase non-farm activity in rural sector, • Increase food supply to farming family, • Increase skills.
MACHINERY USED FOR CROP PRODUCTION / PROCESSING • Machinery used for crop production and processing can be classified into tillage, sowing and planting, crop protection, harvesting and processing equipment. • Tillage History • Some Tillage Equipment (Implement): - Plows, types and operations - Harrows, types and operations - Ridgers and other types of cultivators and operations
EQUIPMENT FOR SOWING, PLANTING & TRANSPLANTING • Crop Establishment • Planting methods and machines • Types of materials for planting • Planting in intensive agricultural systems • Basic components of planting equipments • Planting patterns: -Rows - Precision Planting -Broadcasting
MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION • Handling and Distribution of fertilizers and manures • Crop agronomic Requirements- Accuracy of Application: - Disadvantages of non uniform application -Crop sensitivity to inaccurate fertilizer application • Methods of Application • Mechanisms
CROP PROTECTION MACHINERY • Crop Spraying • Spraying Equipment • Carrier and Power Input • Selective Herbicide • Operation of Sprayer • Mechanical Weeders, for tree types of weeds: - shallow rooted weeds - deep rooted weeds - rhyzomater weeds
HARVESTING PRACTICES AND EQUIPMENT • Harvesting Systems Interms of Using Man hr/ha • Cereal Harvesting: - operations - cutting - cutting and tieing - combine harvesting- pick up mechanism, threshing unit, separating unit, cleaning unit and grain storage unit • Root Crop Harvesting: - principles - cultivations - separation operations