Australia and Oceania • Australia and Oceania are noted for a number of famous tropical islands and diverse cultures • They have unique plants and animals on isolated islands
Australia and Oceania • Sub regions of Oceania include: • Micronesia • Melanesia • Polynesia
Australia and Oceania • Major physical features in the region include: • Mountains • Volcanoes (dormant and active) • Coral reef • Archipelago • Basins • Beaches • Plateaus
Australia and Oceania • In Australia notable physical features include • The Great Dividing Range • The Outback • The Great Sandy Desert • The Great Barrier Reef • The Coral Sea • The Darling River
Australia and Oceania • In the region the main population centers are in Australia, New Zealand, and some island nations of the Pacific Ocean • Most people in Australia live along the coastal areas • The center of the continent is sparsely populated because of climate and lack of fertile soil
Australia and Oceania • New Zealand • Located off the eastern coast of Australia • Two islands- north and south • The majority of the population here is found on the North island where the climate is more moderate
Australia and Oceania • Indigenous people • Indigenous Australian people • Torres Strait Island people of Australia • Samoan people of Polynesia • The Fijian people of Melanesia • The Chamorro people of Micronesia • The Maori people of New Zealand
Australia and Oceania • The indigenous Australian people have the oldest continuous culture on earth • European explorers began sailing the waters around Australia and New Zealand in 1788 • Britain began colonizing the region and established it as a location to send debt prisoners from Great Britain
Australian and Oceania • Indigenous cultures were disrupted by colonization • Some were killed in violent conflicts, suffered death by European diseases, placed on reservations, and stripped of their lands
Australia and Oceania • In New Zealand • The Treaty of Waitangi gave Britain control over the land while the Maori people gained British legal protection and retained local control • When gold was discovered in the 1800s more Europeans came to the region • Today issues exist between the indigenous peoples of Australia and New Zealand and the government over land rights
Warm-up 4/29 • Answer the following question on Tuesday • How do the physical environment and location of resources affect the distribution of settlements and economic activities in Australia and Oceania?
Physical Geography of Australia and Oceania • Islands • No one knows how many islands exist in the Pacific Ocean, but some geographers estimate that there are more than 20,000. • As a group the Pacific Islands are called Oceania (The Philippines, Indonesia, and other islands near the mainland are not considered part of Oceania because their people have cultural ties to Asia.) • In the southwestern Pacific lie New Zealand and Australia.
Oceania’s many islands • Oceania’s islands are always changing • Erosion causes some islands to vanish while other forces create new islands • Most Pacific islands fall into two categories • High islands- created by volcanoes • Low islands- created by coral reefs • Oceania is not rich in natural resources, but New Caledonia does have nickel, chromium, and iron; New Guinea has copper, gold, and oil; Fiji and Solomon have gold • The general lack of resources has made it difficult to develop industry
Majestic New Zealand • New Zealand has two main islands- North and South • Running down the middle of the southern island is a mountain range- The Southern Alps • North Island has hilly ranges and volcanic plateau, but also has fertile farmland and forest that support the lumber industry • The north also has a coastline full of natural harbors that are used for seaports • New Zealand has few mineral resources • Its swift-flowing rivers have allowed its people to build dams that generate electricity
Flat Australia • Australia is the smallest continent on earth • Also the flattest • The Great Dividing Range- chain of highlands that run parallel to the eastern coast
Flat Australia • Australia is rich in minerals • The worlds leading supplier of bauxite, diamonds, opals, lead, and coal • Along Australia’s northeast coast lies one of the wonders of nature- the Great Barrier Reef- often called one of the worlds largest coral reef
Warm-up 4/30 • What landmark is this? • Sydney Opera house • Where is it located? • Sydney, Australia • Which culture created it? • Australians- The NSW Government authorized work to begin in 1958. • Why/when was this landmark created? • It is a multi-venue performing arts center. It opened in 1973. • What defining characteristics standout to you?
Desertification/Salinization • Cause • Desertification occurs due to the arid climate • Encircling this area is a semiarid region that relies on irrigation • Salinization occurs as a result of salt accumulating in the soil due to continuous irrigation, low rainfall and high evaporation cause salinization in the interior of Australia
Introduction of invasive species • Cause • Dingo, rabbits, and other species brought to the region by Asian and European travelers
Melting of polar ice caps • Cause • Thinning of the ozone layer that covers Antarctica; thinning ice sheets
Tectonic forces/ plate movement • Cause • Tectonic plates move over hot spots, magma rises up through the plates creating a volcanic eruption • The lava cools and forms underwater volcanic cones • Active volcanoes
Desertification/ Salinization • Effect • Sheep and cattle ranching are viable in this region and crops are dependent on irrigation • Crops cannot grow in salty soil
Introduction of invasive species • Effect • Prey on other species like kangaroos (dingo's), destruction of crops and grazing land (rabbits) • Government had to intervene to control populations of rabbits
Melting of polar ice caps • Effects • More harmful ultraviolet sunrays reach the lower levels of earth • Increasing temperatures • Raising temperatures of global sea levels
Tectonic forces/ plate movement • Effect • Formation of mountains, high islands and plateaus • Fertile soil as a result of volcanic ash which produces crops such has sugarcane and pineapples • Geothermal electricity
On a separate sheet of paper answer the following questions. • What are the physical forces that affect settlement in the region? • Which events are man-made hazards? • What hazards are the results of natural forces? • Hand in when you are finished!
Warm-up 5/1 • How does modernization affect the lifestyles and customs of traditional societies?
Warm-up 5/2 • The video you’re going to see shows a traditional indigenous war dance. • What characteristics do you see in the dance? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdhrUKRdKM8
Oceania • History • Europeans started to explore in the 1500s • In the 1800s, missionaries arrived and tried to convert the islanders to Christianity • Traders came for products and sailors hunted whales • Settlers stated plantations and grew coconuts, coffee, pineapples, or sugar • As a result island societies began to decline • Many islanders died from disease • Western ways replaced traditional customs
Oceania • History • During WWII the Allies and the Japanese fought fierce battles in the region to gain control of the Pacific • Some islands were used as nuclear test sites
Oceania • Culture of the Islands • Culture here blends traditional ways with the cultures of Europe and the United States • Very diverse languages, but English is the most constant • Christianity is the most widely practiced • There are stills some traditional religions practiced
Oceania • The arts • Many Pacific Islanders produce arts and crafts like baskets and mats woven from the leaves of palm trees or carved wooden masks
Oceania • Traditional life • Most people live in small villages • Houses are usually wooden with thatched roofs • Usually have a chief that leads the village • Economies are centered around fishing and farming • Many are hunter-gatherers
Oceania • Modernization • Oceania has few cities, but they are growing because many people are moving there for jobs and education • Urbanization has led to sprawling shantytowns and inadequate sanitation facilities • People are also losing their culture
Oceania • How did contact with Europeans and Americans affect the societies of the Pacific Islands? • What are the chief crops of Oceania? • What is distinctive about Oceania in terms of language? • How has modern technology both helped and harmed Oceania?
Australia and New Zealand • History • The Aboriginal people- migrated to Australia from Asia at least 4,000 years ago • They had about 500 different groups speaking about 200 different languages • European settlement- in 1788 Britain began to colonize and used it as a place to send prisoners • They also used it as a place to have more naval bases • Europeans also had many conflicts with the aboriginal peoples
Australia and New Zealand • Rights and land claims • New Zealanders have a long tradition of concern for equal rights • The indigenous people here aim to improve their lives and made claims for the return of their former lands
Australia and New Zealand • Neither country has developed much industry because they export most of their food products and wool to the United Kingdom • They are still very prosperous • Agriculture • One of the biggest economic activities • Ranching is also widespread
Australia and New Zealand • Mining • Australia makes most of its income from mining- diamonds, lead, zinc, opals, bauxite, coal, copper, gold, and iron ore • Many of the deposits like in the outback, far from cities • It is expensive to build the roads and buildings necessary for the mines to operate • They rely heavily on foreign investors
Australia and New Zealand • Manufacturing and Service • Australia does not rely heavily on manufacturing • One of the major industries is processing of food products • Because of its forests- New Zealand also produces wood and paper products
Australia and New Zealand • Economic Future • Both Australia and New Zealand want to develop more diversified economies that are not so dependent on agriculture • But it is difficult to compete with Asia
Australia and New Zealand • Culture • They have a lot of British influence • Speak English • Most practice Christianity • In New Zealand- British and Maori blend in culture