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LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS PowerPoint Presentation
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LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

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LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

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  1. Lecture 5 LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

  2. Learning, training and development • Develop – to unfold more fully, to bring out all that is potentially contained within • Educate – to bring up so as to form habits, manners, intellectual and physical aptitudes • Train – to instruct and discipline in or for some particular art, profession, occupation or practice. • All of the above assume some form of learning takes place within the individual

  3. Learning, training and development • Learning implies: • Change • Sustained change • Behaviour is influenced • Learning results from experience

  4. Behaviourist theories of learning

  5. Skinner and instrumental conditioning

  6. Instrumental conditioning and learning • Reinforcement used to shape behaviour pattern desired • Reinforcement schedules: • Fixed ratio • Variable ratio • Fixed interval • Variable interval • Reinforcement types: • Positive • Negative • Omission • Punishment

  7. Cognitive approaches to learning

  8. Social and experiential learning approaches • Socialization provides a great deal of learning • Kolb (1985) - Learning cycle • Concrete experience • Reflective observation • Abstract conceptualization • Experimentation in new situations

  9. Social and experiential learning approaches • Continuous development process implied by the social learning model: • Integration of learning and work • Self-directed learning • Emphasis on process rather than technique • Continuous development as an attitude • Continuous development for organizations as well as individuals

  10. Other approaches to learning within organizations • Socialization: sitting by Nellie • Learning styles: • Activist • Reflector • Theorist • Pragmatist • Talent, skill and competency • Action learning • Culture of an organization impacts on the level and form oflearning within it

  11. The learning organization • Mumford (1989): • Encouragement for managers to accept responsibility for identification of • their own training needs • Encouragement for managers to set themselves challenging learning goals • Employees - regular performance reviews and feedback • Encouragement for managers to identify learning opportunities • Questioning attitudes to accepted ways of doing things • Acceptance that when learning some mistakes are inevitable • On the job training and other learning activities

  12. Single loop learning - the learning involved in the acquisition of a skill – trial and error, problem solving involving making choices from a limited range of options Double loop learning – reflects the decision process in identifying what should be learned from the level one process Triple loop learning (Flood and Romm) – Level one – the ‘how’ aspect of organizational activity Level two – the ‘what’ aspect of organizational functioning Level three – the ‘why’ aspect of organizational functioning Single, double and triple loop learning

  13. Senge (1990) The Fifth Discipline – uses double loop learning as a way to create the learning organization. Five disciplines involved: Systems thinking Personal Mastery Mental models Building shared vision Team learning Single, double and triple loop learning

  14. Knowledge management • Knowledge is a commodity • Employees are trained to absorb management’s values and norms • Different forms of knowledge within a company: • Practical knowledge • Those that specialise in selling knowledge • Business-related knowledge • Market intelligence • Accumulated knowledge and experience • Information flows around a company • Management seek to control knowledge • Knowledge management strategies need to be grounded in the concept of wisdom • Lloyd (1999) - wisdom is knowledge with a long shelf-life, whereas data are information • with a very short shelf-life

  15. Learning within an organization • Learning through training • The training process in learning • Learning event design • Training evaluation • Hamblin (1974) • Reaction • Learning • Job behaviour • Organization • Ultimate value • Development

  16. Learning has many applications within organizations • Induction of new employees • Initial job training • Subsequent job training • Training on transfer or promotion • Training for special groups • Development • Professional development • Specialist career development • Manager’s career development • Development for directors and senior managers • Job termination training • Special initiative training and development