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The Renaissance 1450-1527

The Renaissance 1450-1527

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The Renaissance 1450-1527

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  1. The Renaissance 1450-1527 Unit EQ: Why does the Renaissance mark the beginning of the modern era?

  2. What are the indexes of modernity? • Pressures for increased democracy • Loosening of old customs • Questioning of ancestral religions; increased secularization • Demands for individual liberation • Expectation of a higher standard of living • Drive for more equality (gender, race, class, religious, nationalities) • Elaborate means of transportation and communication • Advanced science, medicine, hygiene, agriculture • Sophisticated means for fighting or negotiating peace • Complex networks of finance and trade

  3. “Open the door and a few flies come in” - Deng Xiaoping on China’s modernization

  4. Renaissance: the 5 W’s • WHAT? • WHEN? • WHERE? • WHO? • WHY?

  5. WHAT was the Renaissance?

  6. The Late Middle Ages: Cathedrals

  7. After 1450: Humanism revived

  8. Renaissance Ideals Humanism: - Individualism - Secularism -Materialism virtu:Civic Humanism – applying humanist values to the improvement of public virtue Expectation of a better life in this world for future generations Humans have power to improve and achieve progress

  9. Civic humanism

  10. Essential Understanding:Time, Continuity & Change Medieval legacies: Renaissance departures:

  11. WHEN? A Movable Feast

  12. The Late Middle Ages: Prelude* to the Modern World 1100-1350 • Magna Charta, 1215: limits the arbitrary rule of monarchs • Cities emerge around cathedrals and universities • Scholasticism revives the study of logic and reason • Trade picks up between Italy and the non-western world *prelude = beginning that transitions to a main event

  13. “In innumerable ways today’s world is linked to the Middle Ages”: Technological lead of the West Higher law of God Sacred worth of individual The ideal of the noble warrior Government by consent and rule by law(Magna Charta, 1215) “Although the elements of continuity are clear, the characteristic outlook of the Middle Ages was as different from that of the modern age as it was from that of the ancient world” Human intellect/reason CAN interpret the natural world through science Nature is a unified field, not a hierarchical one Nationalism replaced personal & feudal allegiances Science and possibility of human progress replace faith and a sinful individual Medieval legacies: Renaissance departures:(5th – 14th C) (15th – 18th C)

  14. “In innumerable ways today’s world is linked to the Middle Ages”: “Although the elements of continuity are clear, the characteristic outlook of the Middle Ages was as different from that of the modern age as it was from that of the ancient world” Medieval legacies: Renaissance departures:(5th – 14th C) (15th – 18th C)

  15. WHERE: city states and principalities of the Italian peninsula • Continuous trade with the Mediterranean world during the Middle Ages • Urban centers emerge • Commercial classes in city states emerge as a vibrant force, patronize art • Greek scholars flee there after 1453 • Legacy of Rome’s glory and civic pride

  16. WHO? • Humanist scholars • Wealthy patrons • Philosophers • Historians • Artists and poets • Government officials & civil servants

  17. WHO:Petrarch, Bruni, Valla, Mirandola Humanists create A New Set of Values • Transition from Scholasticism to philology and liberal arts • Revival of classical texts, Latin language, Greek philosophy from Byzantine Empire after 1453 • Use of objective historical analysis • Intellectual curiosity glorified

  18. WHY IMPORTANT?Renaissance ideals live on in the indexes of modernity • Respect for dignity of the individual and liberty • Science replaces faith as source of material knowledge • Expectation of a decent standard of living and growth of middle class • Diplomacy and balance of power deployed • Centralized state authority serves as a buffer against feudalism and disorder

  19. “What needs to be explained is not the existence of a Leonardo or a Michelangelo but their co-existence” - KGO

  20. What are the indexes of modernity? • Pressures for increased democracy • Loosening of old customs • Questioning of ancestral religions; increased secularization • Demands for individual liberation • Expectation of a higher standard of living • Drive for more equality (gender, race, class, religious, nationalities) • Elaborate means of transportation and communication • Advanced science, medicine, hygiene, agriculture • Sophisticated means for fighting or negotiating peace • Complex networks of finance and trade

  21. Medieval & Renaissance painting compared: • Subject matter: • Purpose: • Techniques:

  22. The Renaissance:A New Age by Self-Assertion

  23. Gothic Cathedrals • Long naves to the alter • Flying buttresses for support • Stained glass windows • Statues of saints • Towns grow up around the cathedrals

  24. Brunelleschi:-revived classical elements - synthesizes classical architecture with gothic cathedral structure

  25. Prague, Czech Republic Florence, Italy

  26. Alberti “A building, like a body, needs an even number of supports and like a head, an odd number of openings”

  27. Painting: Medieval versus Renaissance

  28. Massacio: “The Expulsion of Adam And Eve” (ca. 1425) -used shading to create light and shadow -used linear persepctive

  29. Classical themes admired : architecture, heroes, education.

  30. Massacio: linear persepctive

  31. Leonardo da Vinci: • Sfumato • Chiarrascurro

  32. The creation of naturalism. • Proportionality • Humanistic subject matter • Meticulous observation of what occurs in nature • Mathematical perspective to create the illusion of 3 dimensionality

  33. Raphael’s “The Three Graces” Emphasis on beauty

  34. Botticelli’s Birth of Venus

  35. Individualism

  36. Materialism and luxury: The beginning Of the Bourgeoisie = Urban upper Middle class

  37. Two different visions of sculpture:

  38. Two different visions of scultpture: Gargoyle on cathedral, Michelangelo’s Pieta, Medieval: Renaissance: Abstract Naturalistic Spiritual only Humanistic Embedded in cathedral Free-standing

  39. Donatello • Revived free-standing sculpture • Studied human anatomy

  40. Renaissance sculpture: • Contraposto • Free-standing • Proportional • anatomy studies and mathematics • Bold attitude PURPOSE: naturalism as a metaphor for humanism

  41. The Middle Ages =A “Dark Age” ?

  42. The Renaissance:A New Age by Self-Assertion