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quranic grammar as sarf morphology of the words lesson 9 n.
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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 9

QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 9

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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 9

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  1. QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF“Morphology of the words”Lesson 9 Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali

  2. 13- Patterns of derived nouns (Al Ism Mushtaq) • There are 7 Patterns in Nouns that we will discuss: • Subject Noun FAAE’Lكاتب=فاعل • Object Noun MAFU’OOL مكتوب=مفعول • Siffah Mushabihah (Description similar to Subject), Extensive Emphasis AFA’L اسود=افعل • Superlative Noun AFA’LA MINاكبرمن= افعل من • Amplifying noun FA’AALالرحمن=فعّال • Time Noun MAFE’Lمغرب=مفعل • Place Noun MAFA’Lمركز=مفعل • Tool Noun MEFA’AALمنشار=مفعال

  3. 13-Patterns – Subject Noun - اسم فاعل • Subject Noun – Ism Faail اسم فاعل • It is a noun that indicates a doer (Actor) of an action. • In English we have a similar pattern: “Build” + er = Builder, Painter, Baker, Maker, • There is a difference between the noun of subject (ISM FAAE’L) and the grammatical subject which will be discussed in the grammar, for example : • QAATIL قاتل in SARF is a noun of subject (ISM FAAE’L) because it is on the scale of FAAE’L فاعل , but it may be a grammatical subject or grammatical object depends on the grammatical position: • ضرب القاتل عليا DHARAB ALQAATILO ALIYAN • ALQAATIL (murder) is a subject (ends with a DHAMMA) in the first and is and an object (ends with a FATHA) in the next sentence: • ضرب علي القاتل DHARAB ALIYON ALQAATILA

  4. Three Lettered verbs have a scale of فاعل • ضرب (Hit)  ضارب • نصر  ناصر • In a tri-lettered verb, if the Ayn of the verb is a Alif, then a Hamza will be added after the Alif. • نامنائمNaa’em • صامصائمSaa’em • باعبائعBaa’e • قالقائلQaa’el

  5. Four Lettered verbs have a scale of Mufel • Prefix the verb with Meem with a Dhammah • Add a Kasra on the letter before the last letter (مفعل) Mufe’l استغفرمستغفرMustagfer

  6. Patterns – Subject Noun - اسم فاعل • Ism Faa’elفاعلاسم replaces a verb and is used as a verb (which requires a grammatical subject and perhaps an object) when: • it is articulated with الafter it • a subject that has a linking pronoun (and an object if the verb form is transitive verb) Al-AamiloAkooho • جاء الرجُلُالعامل أخوه The man came who’s brother is a worker Jaa’aجاء – Past Tense ArRujulالرجُلُ –Subject - (The Man) AlAameluالعاملُ– Ism Fa’el (replaced the verbعملAamala) أخوه– Subject of Al-Aamilعامل Linking pronoun “ho” referring back to الرجُلُ

  7. 13- Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول Ism Mafool is a noun which is derived from a passive verb (مبني المجهل) to indicate an object (The one which the action of verb was done on) Three Lettered Form: Foela فُعِلَ Mafoolمفعول • Dhuriba ضرب (Hit)  مضروبMudhroob (The one who was hit) • Nosera نصر (Supported) منصورMansoor (The one who was supported)

  8. Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول 1. If the verb had a vowel letter (Alif, Wow, Yaa) in the middle (Ay’n) then it is returned to its Original vowel letter (by turning into a present tense in most cases) • Qaa La قال  Yaqool يقول  Maqool مقول (said word) • Baa’a باَعَ (sold)YABEE’ يبيع (selling-present tense)  Mabee’a (commodity) مَبِيع [the (A’yn ع ) Alif ا is originally Yaaي , therefore it turns into a Yaaي] 2. If the verb ended with a vowel letter Alifا which was originally Yaaى , then it will be converted to YAA . • Banaa بَنَىَ Present Tense Banee بنى Mabneeمَبنىِ or If the vowel letter Alifا was originally wowو then it will be coverted to wow: • DaAaaدَعَاَ  Yadoo يدعو(Present)  MadOooمَدعُو = The invited one

  9. Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول 3. Some times Ism Mafool is used on one of the scales of ISM Faa’elفاعل such as FA’EELفعيل • Qatalaقتل  Qateel قتيل (Murdered One) OR  Maqtoolمقتول • Jaraha جَرَحَ Jareeh جَريح OR  MaJrooh مجروح= Injured one For non tri-lettered Mafool nouns it will be prefixed by a meemم with dhamma, and the letter before the last one will have a fatha. Scale of Mof’al Qad’dara قّدّرمقدّر Muqad’dar IsTakrajاستخرخ مستخرجMustakhraj • Please note: Every non tri-lettered object (Ism Mafool) is Masdar Meem but not vice versa.

  10. Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول Ism Mafool is dealt as a noun Marfoo, Mansoob, and Majroor. Some times it will act as a passive verb and will take the place of the verb, in such case it will require a Naaeb Fael (successor of subject). The details of this will be discussed in grammar. • There is a difference between the noun of object (ISM MAFU’OOL) and the grammatical object which will be discussed in the grammar, for example : • MAQTOOL مقتول in SARF is a noun of object (ISM MAFU’OOL) because it is on the scale of MAFU’OOLمفعول , but it may be a grammatical subject or grammatical object depends on the grammatical position: • ضرب المقتول عليا DHARAB AL MAQTOOLO ALIYAN • ALMAQTOOL (victim) is a subject (ends with a DHAMMA) in the first and is an object (ends with a FATHA) in the next sentence: • ضرب علي المقتول DHARAB ALIYON AL MAQTOOLA