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Leadership Foundations • Managers versus Leaders • Trait Theories • Behavioral Theories • Cross Cultural Implications • Situational Contingency Leadership • Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency Theory • House’s path-Goal Theory of Leadership • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory • Graen’s Leader-member exchange Theory • Substitutes for Leadership Theory • Implicit Leadership • Leadership as Attribution • Leadership Prototypes • Inspirational Leadership Perspectives • Charismatic Leadership • Transformational and Transactional Leadership • Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Issues.
Leadership Foundation: A Summary • Managers versus Leaders • Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives. • The role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly, whereas the role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes.
Persons in managerial positions could be involved with both management and leadership activities, or they could emphasize one activity at the expense of the others. Both management and leadership are needed. • Leadership appears in two form • Formal leadership : which is exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizational. • Informal leadership : which is exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others.
Trait Theories • Trait perspective assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes. • Traits with positive implications for successful leadership are as follow:-
Behavioral Theories • The behavioral perspective assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes. • Two classic research programs-at the University of Michigan and the Ohio State University- provide useful insights into leadership behaviors.
Michigan Studies • In the late 1940s, researchers at the University of Michigan introduced a research program on leadership behavior. • The researchers derived two basic forms of leader behavior: employee centered and production centered. Employee-centered supervisors are those who place strong emphasis on their subordinates welfare. • In contrast, production-centered supervisors are more concerned with getting the work done. • In general, employee-centered supervisors were found to have more productive workgroups than did the production-centered supervisors. • Sometimes, the more general termhuman-relation oriented and oriented are used to describe these alternative leader behavior.
Ohio State Studies • A leader high in consideration is sensitive to people’s feelings and tries to make things pleasant for the followers. • A leader high in initiating structure is concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda. • The Leadership Grid • Robert Blake and Jane Mouton have develop the leadership grid approach based on extensions of the Ohio State dimensions. • Leadership grid results are plotted on a nine-position grid that places concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis.
Cross-Cultural Implications • It is important to consider how well the kinds of behavioral dimensions discussed earlier transfer internationally. Some work in the United Stated, Britain, Hong Kong, and Japan shows that the behavior must be carried out in different ways in alternative cultures. • British leaders are seen as considerate if they show subordinates how to use equipment, whereas in Japan the highly considerate leader helps subordinates with personal problems.
Situational Contingency Leadership • Another development in leadership thinking has recognized, however, that leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies.
Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency Theory • Situational control is the extent to which leaders can determine what their groups are going to do and what the outcomes of their actions and decision are going to be. • The least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale is a measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom respondents have been able to work least well. • Fred Fiedler’s work began the situational contingency era in t emid-1960s. His theory holds that group effectiveness on an appropriate match between a leader’s style (essentially a trait measure) and the demands of the situation.
Fiedler uses an instrument called the least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale to measure a person’s leadership style. • Leader-member relations (good/poor) – membership support for the leader. • Task structure (high/low) –spelling out the leader’s task goals, procedures, and guidelines in the group. • Position power (strong/weak) – the leader’s task expertise and reward or punishment authority. *Fiedler’s three situati0nal control variables. * 2. House path goal theory (as discussed before)
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational leadership Theory • Situational leadership model focuses on the situational contingency of maturity or “readiness” of followers. • Situational contingency approaches, the situational leadership model developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard posits that there is no single best way to lead.
Hersey and Blanchard focus on the situational contingency of maturity, or “readiness,” of followers, in particular. • Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. • A “telling” style (S1) is best for low follower readiness (R1) • A “selling” style (S2) is best for low-to-moderate follower readiness (R2) • A “participating” style (S3) is best for moderate-to-high follower readiness (R3) • A “delegating” style (S4) is best for high readiness (R4)
Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange Theory • Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory emphasize the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers. • An LMX scale assesses the degree to which leaders and followers have mutual respect for one another’s capabilities, feel a deepening sense of mutual trust, and have a strong sense of obligation to one another, which followers will be a part of the leader’s “in-group” or “out-group”.
In-group followers tend to function as assistants, lieutenants, or advisers and to have higher-quality personalized exchanged with the leader than do out-group followers. • The out-group followers tend to emphasize more formalized job requirements, and relative low level of mutual influence exist between leaders and out-group followers. • LMX is associated with increased follower satisfaction and productivity, decrease turnover, increased salaries, and faster promotion rates.
Substitutes for Leadership Theory • Substitutes for leadership make a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence. • It will be unnecessary and perhaps not even possible for a leader to provide the kind of task-oriented directed already available from an experienced, talented, and well-trained subordinate. • In contrast, neutralizers prevent a leader from behaving in a certain way or nullify the effects of a leader's action. • Little formal authority or is physically separated, for example, his or her leadership may be nullified even tough task supportiveness may still be needed.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF JOB CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATION
Implicit Leadership • To move from the symbolic leadership extension of leadership substitutes to implicit leadership. • In the mid 1970’s a couple of researchers argued that “leadership factors are in the mind of the respondent. It remains to be established whether or not they are more than that.” this general notion is described here in two forms. • The first one is labeled leadership as attribution and the second is termed leadership prototypes.
Leadership as Attribution • If leader attribute an employee’s poor performance to lack of effort, they may issue a reprimand, whereas if they attributes the poor performance to an external factor, such as work overload, they will probably try to fix the problem. • Inference-based emphasizes leadership effectiveness as inferred by followers based on perceived group or organization performance outcomes.
Leadership Prototypes • Leadership prototypes are the second form of leadership considered to be in the mind of the beholder. Here, research argues that people have a mental image of the characteristics that make a “good” leader or that a “real” leader would possess to be considered effective in a given situation. • Leadership prototypes are an alternatives way to the inference-based approach to assess leadership and are termed recognition based (you know one when you see his or her characteristics profile).
Recognition-based is leadership effectiveness based on how well a person fits characteristics of a good or effective leader • Small-scale study contrasted typical business leader prototypes between Japan an the United States. • Japan: responsible, educated, trustworthy, intelligent, disciplined • United States: determined, goal oriented, verbally skilled, industrious, persistent.
Inspirational Leadership Perspective • Charismatic Leadership. • Are those leaders who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. • Transformational and Transactional Leadership. • Transactional leadership involves leader-followers exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance agreed upon between leaders and followers. • Transformational leadership occurs when leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interest and stir followers to look beyond their own interest to the good of others.
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership issues. • Issues 1: can people be trained in charismatic/transformational leadership? • Issues 2: is charismatic/transformational leadership always good? • Sila bincangkan dalam kumpulan.
Study Guide • What are leadership foundations? • Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives • Leadership and management differ in that management is designed to promote stability or to make the organization run smoothly, whereas the role of leadership is to promote adaptive change. • Traits or great-person approaches argue that leader traits have a major impact on differentiating between leaders and nonreaders or predicting leadership outcomes. • Traits are considered relatively innate and hard to change. • Similar to trait approaches, behavioral theories argue that leader behavior have a major impact on outcomes. • Leader behavior theories are especially suitable for leadership training.
What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? • Leader situational contingency approaches argue that leadership, in combination with various situational contingency variables, can have a major impact on outcomes. • The effect of traits are enhanced to the extent of their relevance to the situational contingency faced by the leader. • Strong or weak situational contingencies influence the impact of leadership traits. • Fiedler’s contingencies theory, House’s path-goal theory, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory, Graen’s leader-member exchange theory, and Kerr and Jermier’s substitutes for leadership theory are particularly important specific situational contingency approaches. • Sometimes, as in the case of the substitutes for leadership approach, the role of situational contingencies replaces that of leadership, so that leadership has little or no impact in itself.
What are implicit leadership approaches to leadership? • Attribution theory extends traditional leadership approaches by recognizing that substantive effects cannot always be objectively identified and measured • Leaders form attribution about why their employees perform well or poorly and respond accordingly as do employees concerning leaders. • Leaders and followers often infer that there is good leadership when their group performs well. This is an inferential perspective. • Leaders and followers often have in mind a good leader prototype; compare the leader against such a prototype; an conclude that the closer the fit, the better the leadership. This is a representational perspective. • Some contend that leadership makes no real difference and is largely symbolic; others, following the “romance of leadership” notion, embrace this symbolic emphasis and attribute almost magical qualities to leadership.
What are inspirational perspective to leadership? • Charismatic and transformational leadership helps move followers to achieve goals that transcend their own self-interests and help transform the organization. • Particularly important among such approaches are Bass’s transformational theory and House’s and Conger and Kanungo’s charismatic perspectives. • Transformational approaches are broader than charismatic ones and sometimes include charisma as one of their dimensions. • Transformational/charismatic leadership, in general, are important because they go beyond traditional leadership in facilitating change in the increasingly fast-moving workplace. • In terms of charismatic/transformational leadership training, Bass and his colleagues, Conger and Kanungo, and Kaouzos and Posner, among others, have developed such training programs. • Charismatic/transformational leadership are not always good, as shown by the example of Adolf Hitler. • Charismatic/transformational leadership are not always helpful since even if good, they may divert energy away from other kinds of leadership. • Charismatic/transformational leadership are important throughout the organization, as well as the top.