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Low Incidence Disabilities

Low Incidence Disabilities

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Low Incidence Disabilities

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  1. Low Incidence Disabilities

  2. Prevalence • Very low incidence disabilities include those with prevalence rates between 1/10th and ½ of a percent • Three very low incidence categories include: • Multiple disabilities • Deaf-Blindness • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

  3. Categories

  4. Prevalence

  5. Multiple-Severe Disabilities • People with multiple disabilities will likely require on-going and intensive support throughout their lives • They generally require the support of many specialists • The emphasis for these students is on developing skills that promote independence

  6. Multiple-Severe Etiology • Like other disabilities, multiple factors are responsible • Heredity • Before, during, and after birth problems • Low birth weight • Unknown factors

  7. Multiple-Severe Characteristics • Students may have trouble: • Generalizing information • Communicating • With memory • Participating in the community without supports • Students may have medical problems such as: • Seizure disorders • Vision or hearing impairments • Heart disease • Cerebral Palsy

  8. Deaf-Blindness • To be included in this category, students must have a combined vision and hearing deficit • Have visual acuity of 20/70 or worse in the better eye • An auditory deficit of 30 dB in the better ear • Deaf-blindness is NOT absolute -- many Deaf-blind individuals can: • Move around independently • Read enlarged print • Recognize faces • Read sign language • Understand some sounds / recognize familiar voices

  9. Deaf-Blindness Etiology • Pre-mature birth • Heredity • Associated with risk factors including poverty and access to health care

  10. Deaf-Blindness Characteristics • Students have restricted vision and hearing, but the degree is not uniform; each individual is impacted differently • Around 60% of these students have other disabilities besides their visual and hearing impairments • most commonly cognitive disabilities • Common problem areas include: • Feelings of isolation • Communication • Mobility

  11. TBI - breakouts • Find TBI in IDEA (you have been there before), and read it. Prepare a 2 sentence summary for you notes.

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury • IDEA writes, • “...an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psycho-social behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.”

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury • Todd writes, TBI is • an acquired injury to the brain, ranging from mild to severe, • adversely affecting educational performance, and • does not include brain injuries at birth.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury • The 1990 authorization of IDEA made TBI a separate category • prior they were served under the Learning Disabilities category • Medical advances since 1960s are saving more children who might not have survived

  15. Prevalence • Males are about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a TBI – why?

  16. Prevalence • Males are about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a TBI – why? • The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are • 0 to 4 year olds, and • 15 to 19 year olds

  17. Prevalence • Males are about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a TBI – why? • The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are • 0 to 4 year olds, and • 15 to 19 year olds • African Americans have the highest death rate from TBI • One million children annually experience head injury – (but only 15,000 to 16,000 have lasting effects) • It is estimated that every teacher will come in contact with at least one student with TBI

  18. Question: Cause • What is the leading cause of TBI?

  19. TBI Etiology • The leading causes of TBI are (BIAA, 2007): • Falls (28%) (think bike/skateboards, playground etc); • Car crashes (20%); • Hit by something (19%); and • Assaults (11%) • Also caused by child abuse (for children under 2)

  20. TBI Characteristics • Students with TBI often experience: • Reduced stamina • Seizures • Headaches • Hearing loss • Vision problems • remember: More often does not result in long-term disability

  21. TBI Instruction • Students with TBI have difficulty with multistep tasks • They need: • Consistent schedule and routine • Reduced distractions • Shortened assignments • Lots of opportunities for practice of new skills • (notice the similarity between TBI and learning disability / ADHD)

  22. Assessment • IDEA and No Child Left Behind laws require that students with disabilities be part of statewide testing. • Most students with these severe disabilities (multiple-disabilities, Deaf-blind, severe TBI) will participate in alternative assessments • Portfolio • Alternate assessment aligned to alternate standards * • Modified administration (construct irrelevant) • Accommodated administration (construct relevant)

  23. Alternate Assessments • Text indicates 1% - but no! • A maximum of 2% of all students are eligible to be administered alternate assessments • Depends on technical adequacy documentation (reliability and validity evidence) • Alternate assessments must still be aligned with the state's standards • The IEP of a student who takes an alternate assessment must include a statement of why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment.

  24. Assignment • Watch the video (linked on our class website) • In 2-3 sentences… • How is the soldier’s experience similar to a student’s? • Why are mTBI and PTSD coupled together in this video? • (note: video is about 20 minutes long, but the first 15mins are the most important)