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AP U.S. Gov ’ t Review

AP U.S. Gov ’ t Review

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AP U.S. Gov ’ t Review

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  1. AP U.S. Gov’t Review AP Gov't Review CRRRRRUUUUNCH TIME!

  2. A. Review coverage I. Constitutional Underpinnings +Fed = 5-15% II. Political Beliefs + behavior = 10-20% III. Political Parties SIG + Mass Media = 10-20% IV. Institutions = 35-45% V. Public Policy = 5-15% VI. Civil Rights + Civil Liberties = 5-15% AP Gov't Review

  3. B. Exam Breakdown • 60 MC questions – ½ of total score – 45 mins II. Essays – 4 free response in 100 minutes Each essay is worth 1/8 of total score . . . Or a combined total of 50 % of total. Essays can cover either separate components outlined previously or combine elements or factors discussed in part A. See adjoining sheet for possible themes or subject matter. AP Gov't Review

  4. Examination Tools • Text book • Note • Peers • Review materials • And the old guy. . .

  5. I I I T B I I U T M

  6. If It Is To Be It Is Up To Me

  7. I. Constitutional Underpinnings • What is the purpose of Politics? • A conflicting state where one Selects leaders • Leaders work w/in institutions • To make. . . Answer: Policy B. 1. System - Define democracy – answer: it selects + formulates policy which represents + responds to the public preferences. a. Theory encompasses 5 elements: (1) equality in voting (2) effective participation (3) Enlightened understanding - plethora of ideas. . . (4) citizen control of the agenda. (5) inclusion of all who are willing to participate. AP Gov't Review

  8. b. Majority rule w/ minority rights. An issue of “power” . What is a majority . . . Majority = An acculumalation of minorities B. Who really Governs? (1) Pluralist theory – competition among groups . (2) Elite + Class Theory – Class splits . . .Big Business rules! (3) Hyperpluralism – Groups divide gov’t, making it ineffective. . . AP Gov't Review

  9. C. Political theorists represent theories • Hume – Human nature that man was evil. . .Gov’t by the many with negotiation and compromise promoting a union + eventually establishing a republic. 2. Hobbes – one needs an inherited monarchy to promote the legitimacy of gov’t. Absolutism rules. . .Self interest is nat’l interest. 3. Locke – 1689 - social contract theory - Life, liberty and property - Consent of the gov’t by Parliament( few) who had a stake in society because it represented people of property. . .poor people don’t lose much when life deteriorates. 4. Rousseau – Rule by all - a complete democracy -- AP Gov't Review

  10. Rousseau Hume Locke Hobbes All Many Few One hyperplurlism plurlism Elite/class Absolute The above is a . . . . Political spectrum! D. When one governs, one seeks power -- Define: Ability to persuade someone else that it is in their (self)ish interest to follow you. AP Gov't Review

  11. Power Distribution 1. Power can be distributed three ways in a democracy: (a) power elite - (Hobbes) - Representative Democracy (b) political elite- (Hobbes + Locke) - Participatory democracy (c) majoritarian rule- (Locke or Hume) Direct Democracy (d) Mob rule - Rousseau 2. What does one do with power? --- Make Policy: - Actions of Gov’t. . . AP Gov't Review

  12. Revolution + the 1st Constitution Articles of Confederation A ). What could it do And worse. . .what couldn’t it do. . . What showed it’s the A+C true weaknesses – Shay’s Rebellion The second Constitution: a. Equality 1)Representation is established by what type of Gov’t? Anwer: (REPUBLICAN) – AP Gov't Review

  13. New Jersey Plan offered what? (= represent) Virginia Plan which offered? (prop. representation ) led to which agreement? Connecticut Compromise: that offered: US Senate ( 2 Senators per state) US House - (Reps per population of state) AP Gov't Review

  14. 2) slavery - South wanted all males counted? Three-fifths compromise. - A show stopper b. Who can vote – Property owners vs. disenfranchised. Who controlled elections? Answer. States set election laws. Why? c. Economics – Who will control? Congress shall rule + it will build the infrastructure (Post offices to taxation- Article I) AP Gov't Review

  15. d. Individual rights Constitution lacked in this area- show stopper although the Constitution did mention six issues: 1) Writ of habeas corpus 2) bill of attainders 3) ex post facto laws 4) religious preferences to hold office 5) treasonous offenses 6) trial by jury But were we being ruled by “men” or by laws . . . to protect us from these “men” wanted the ??? the Bill of Rights was added to protect us from gov’t. . .a recollection of all the ills that the colonists resided under British rule. AP Gov't Review

  16. e. Popular sovereignty? What is it? Answer> ability to control one’s destiny f. Checks + Balances? What is it? Each branch oversees the other g. Separation of Powers . . . Who wrote the doctrine? Montesqueiu. . .What does it mean? Each branch has a certain function? h. What was the purpose of the B Of R? Answer: Protect one from gov’t AP Gov't Review

  17. Ratification • States voted- - -only needed ? states to ratify 9 (A of Confed needed ? approval to amend) unanimous a. Federalists v. Anti-feds - (1) issue -- the 2nd Constitution was a “class-based document that benefited only the economic elite! (2) fundamental liberties! Were the Bill of Rights enough? (3) Federal $$$$$. . .diminishes State $$$$$. Result – Who ratified the constitution? State special conventions would ratify, not state legislators AP Gov't Review

  18. 9. “Changing” the Constitution- Amendment Process a. Formal process – 2 steps? (1) proposal – Vote • 2/3 of each Congress or National convention (2) Ratification - 3/4 of state leg or spec convention (3) - 27 Amendments - taxation to congressional salaries b. informal process- 4 ways (1) Federal court decisions - Marbury v. Madison (2) Changing political practices - Dems v. Reps Liberals v. Conservatives (4) Domestic politics to foreign politics. Policy makers carry big sticks in implementing policy. AP Gov't Review

  19. Federalism • Define – a decentralization of gov’t. -- a “sharing of the wealth” + gov’t power. • DELEGATED powers belong to; Feds rule - Make war INHERENT – 1) all gov’t possess these pwrs. . .immigration (b) Expressed – (Enumerated) 1) Stated specifically . . .Congress makes law (c) Implied 1) (Makes expressed powers work) – Congress establishes a civil service system to hire federal workers. AP Gov't Review

  20. b. Concurrent POWERS shared power. i.e. education, taxation, Safety c. reserved POWERS states rule - welfare, local education control, local gov’ts, professional licensing. 2. Who shall rule in conflict – Where in the Constitution: Art VI- Supremacy Clause - and Implied powers of national gov’t upheld with . .. McCullogh v. Maryland. Established the which clause? “elastic clause” that gave the Congress the >>> Necessary and Proper Clause (implied powers) to enact policies to run the country! AP Gov't Review

  21. 3. If not stated- states have the rights - Which Amendment? 10th 4. Commerce power – Court Case? Gibbons v. Ogden . Interstate + international commerce . Congress rules! 5. Full Faith and Credit clause – One state’s validity carries over state borders - i.e. marriage licences. AP Gov't Review

  22. 6. From Dual to cooperative federalism - a. Education sets the stage for both the Feds + states to work together in “fiscal harmony” b. “Shared Costs” of Fiscal federalism- c. Grant-In-Aid Feds sell land to fund programs! d. Categorical grants – specific $$ for specific projec w/ strings attached. . .non-discrimatory - Cross cutting requirements - Offenders lose it all! (1)Project grants – competitive requests (2) Formula grant- Do you meet the formula. i.e. public housing, employment programs AP Gov't Review

  23. e. Block grants – social service endeavors w/ less strings attached. SIGS pursue the $350 billion f. Mandates – Feds dictate specific guidelines. . .if don’t comply, penalized or lose the funding. . . Special ed, Disability Act, Clean Air. Medicaid • unfunded mandates. . . Laws w/o funding. . . AP Gov't Review

  24. Practice Essay • 6. The United States Constitution has endured for more than two centuries as the framework of government. However, the meaning of the Constitution has been changed both by formal and informal methods. • (a) Identify two formal methods for adding amendments to the Constitution. • (b) Describe two informal methods that have been used to change the meaning of the Constitution. Provide one specific example for each informal method you described. • (c) Explain why informal methods are used more often than the formal amendment process. AP Gov't Review

  25. Essay Rubrics #1 • Hse + Sen Proposal w/ supermajority or special convention . . . State Leg confirm with 38 or spec convention. b. Need two 0f five informal methods c. Informal is easier and can happen daily, especially w/ court cases. Formal does provide more of a thorough legislative process. . .just not a judicial whim. AP Gov't Review

  26. Practice Essay #2 The US has evolved from a system of dual federalism to a system of cooperative federalism. In the past two decades, some powers have devolved from the federal gov’t to the state gov’t. • Identify and explain one factor that led to the nat’l gov’t having significantly more power than the states. • Identify and explain one factor that led to cooperative federalism. • Identify and explain one factor than led to devolution. AP Gov't Review

  27. Essay #2 Answer • Court rulings: McCullogh v. Maryland (Elastic clause and N+P + Clause . States can’t tax (2 pts) • Grants in Aid encouraged state dev; Medicare handouts but they all come with “conditions of aid. (2 pts) • Debt load, more state right advocates. TANF program was once a categorical grant but now it is a block grant. 2 pts AP Gov't Review

  28. II. Political Culture • How does one determine the socialization of the American constituent? 1. Six factors a. Tradition + customs b. Impact of events c. Changes in the way of political elites d. families e. school f. relationships (as the paradigms shift) AP Gov't Review

  29. 2. WHO establishes our political value system. . .Who sets the agenda? a. SIGS b. Political institutions c. Media “The New Parent” (hand out media handout) d. family e. Social Economic Stratification (SES) as one grows older. AP Gov't Review

  30. B. America’s Demographics: Who are we? 1. Demographics . . . Deal with what? a. gender b. occupation c. Race d. religion e. SES - social class 2. How does one determine demographics? Census building - It will happen every 10 years. How does it impact us “politically”? a.Congressional apportionment / Electoral College b. Redistricting c. Block grant distribution 3) Minority/majority is influencing the great melting pot. by 2050 - Whites will be only 52% of society Who is the largest minority? Hispanics AP Gov't Review

  31. 4. What Act requires employers to document the citizenship of employees or face fines? Simpson/Mazzoli 3. How has the shifting of America occurred? from Frost Belt to Sun Belt: (SW, SE and Texas dramatic population increases(20% growth rates) while North has 5% growth) How has this impacted the American political scene? Answer: Congress + reapportionment; Red + Blue states . . .more AP Gov't Review

  32. 4. GRAY POWER – Baby boomers graying rapidly. How has this impacted the political landscape? Answer: they wish to collect their $5 trillion in Social Security benefits! -- Their SIGS possess clout - i,e, AARP, others. AP Gov't Review

  33. c. How does one gauge America’s pulse? POLLING- 1. Early 1950’s George Gallup “Polled” a microcosm of American political thought . . . What scientific device? - a Sample -- the more “random” the better. . .???? everyone has a chance of being selected. . . b) Biased sample- stated preference c) representative sample . i.e. Democrats only 2. Samples are not perfect -- ??? sampling error . . . 1-5% error rate per 1,-000- 2,000 responses. . .The bigger the sample. . . .the less the sampling error. 3. random-digit dialing speeds up the process! AP Gov't Review

  34. How do Polls assist politicians . . . • detect public preferences. . . • Are their shifts in thinking . . .creating possible “shifts” in policy making. • It has become the issue of selling policy instead of possibly doing what’s right! • Avoiding compromises to appease radical shifts!. Politicians love them when they agree with them, they hate them when they disagree. 5. Bandwagon effects is . . . jump on board. . .instead of doing what’s right! AP Gov't Review

  35. 6. What is an Exit poll ? QA voters after they vote. What’s wrong w/ them? - Can control elections, East votes earlier than west. 7. What is a push poll? Answer: Opponent asks a negative Q late in campaign and the contender doesn’t have time to respond. 8. Polls can show 3 items. . . a. relevancy, or salience of a topic + intensity b. stability c. direction. . .positive or negative AP Gov't Review

  36. d. Liberals + conservatives? • Size of gov’t `Liberals `Conservatives Nat’l, fed big govt, centralized small. . .state. . .decentralized (b) Change progressive status quo (c) international diplomacy Coalitions Isolationists + Security (d) View of man • Can be cured Evil, needs order (e) Use of violence to maintain order Changing environment disciplinarians 2. True Liberals a) Blue dogs – Conservative Democrats, Dixiecrats AP Gov't Review

  37. Reagan era shift to the right. . .Clinton era shift to the left, then to the middle. . .Bush era – Right . . . Politically. . .what is this called? Re-alignment of political ideology. AP Gov't Review

  38. D. Political participation: The many forms-- How: 8 ways to participate. 1. Voting. Only 50% vote in nat’l elections. Voters see a lack of political efficacy? Answer: not being able to politically “effect” society through the political process. They have no influence. . . (T-19) 2. Join SIGS 3. Give $$$$ to SIGS thru PACS 4. Become a political elite 5. Contacting gov’t officials on a regular basis 6. Working on a campaign 7. civil disobedience 8. Violence Who participates more? higher SES participate more. . . and get more! AP Gov't Review

  39. E. Mass Media: • Fourth Estate (Mass Media) –Power originates . . . • 1st Amendment provides the incentive to report the “News” which is . . . . a timely occurence that “informs the public”. 2. What is a “Media Event. . . Get your name or picture in print or on the tube! either through “news” events or paid advertising! Often Politicians “make” news to get on the news. 3. What is a “Spin Master”? Person hired specifically to promote the image of the candidate! i.e. Reagan era advice: AP Gov't Review

  40. 7. Competition in the medias has forced them to be much more aggressive and “bend” the journalistic rules of using reliable sources and the “sound bite” and great images! What is a Sound bite? Answer- Short clip of a dramatic statement from the politician. AP Gov't Review

  41. 8. Narrowcasting v. Broadcasting. . . (focus on specific news or issues 24 hours a day) may fulfill political junkies or spin issues out of control. Or one can turn to the BLOGGERS . . . 9. Politicians can manipulate the press by sending up: • trial balloons to see how the public will react to certain issues. Then back off if the response is negative. • both the political elites and the medias dance to get the upperhand. . .and both seek the advantage in dispensing their agenda. . . • The Press’ wishes to inform the masses. . . vs. the politicians’ attempt to put it in a good light. . . 10. Undoubtedly, “coverage” impacts public opinion! AP Gov't Review

  42. 11. 4 Mass media roles a. Signaler alert the public ASAP – 24/7 news b. Agenda setting focus public’s att’n c. Common Carrier role Open channel from politician to constituent d. Watch dog role Protect the public from politicians. There is tension between what two roles? Common carrier and watch dog More of a tendency to report bad . . .than a bias tint. AP Gov't Review

  43. criticisms of the press • Not objective – Biases are prevalent • Only a few own a lot – the big 6 • Sensational news more important than the real news. • Selling image instead of the issues

  44. E. Amassing public support Special Interest groups (SIGS) Purpose of “influencing” the gov’t at all levels, all branches. No gov’t stone shall be left unturned! • Political parties goals are to: “make” policy. . . SIGS goal is too: Influence. . . AP Gov't Review

  45. Types of groups Biggest: 1. Business or economic sector – heavily funded. 2. Labor 3. Single issue 4. Public interest 5. Smallest You if you can find a friend.

  46. How Influence? Six strategies or techniques. . . a. Provide data to Gov’t + agencies. Policy specialists ( Pol parties are party generalists) b. draft legislation via the Iron Triangle (issue) network of SIGS Gov’t agencies Congressional subcommittees c. lawsuits (amicus curiae, Friend of the court) class action court cases. d. education e. Watchdogs of gov’t. . . f. Lobbyists- “hired guns or political persuaders, whose job is to promote the SIGS interests via. . .pressure (garnering votes, + $$$$, idealists. ) AP Gov't Review

  47. 4. SUCCESSFUL SIGS: What determines success? a. size of the group . . . • is it a “potential group”--- a mixture (consumers) of many who “could” belong, • “actual group” of hard core (NRA) followers. • Potential groups (or large groups) suffer from? “free-rider status”. i.e. all minimum wage earners benefit from minimum wage increases. . .so why work toward it. . . AP Gov't Review

  48. b. Intensity - Single issue groups - NRA, NOW, Gun Control, abortion c. $$$$ - As of 1974, corporations and Unions can not directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT Political Action Committees (PACS) , the political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates’ campaigns w/ what type of money? Hard $$$ NOOOOT Soft! Or via. . . 527’s AP Gov't Review

  49. Buckley v. Valeo? extended $$$ to “indirect” financing (TV ads) (b). Soft Money - 1980 - Can “earmark” funds to a political party, unlimited contributions. . . $400 million allocated in 2000 election to Dems + Republicans. Today soft money is not regulated. Citizens United v. FEC AP Gov't Review

  50. d. Going Public. . .reaching out to influence public opinion. . Ads sell! a great form of propaganda! Interest group participation is culmination of political participatory activities. AP Gov't Review