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Long-term Management Options

Long-term Management Options

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Long-term Management Options

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  1. Long-term Management Options Experiences from around the world CemareDiana Tingley Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  2. Outline • Basic concepts and information: • Factors contributing to overexploitation and unsustainability • Paths to solution • Capacity management • Cost of fisheries management • Experiences of countries: • Canada • Australia • Faroes • Iceland • New Zealand Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  3. Basic Concepts and Information Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  4. Overexploitation and unsustainability • Four components of sustainability: • Bio-ecological; Economic; Social; Institutional • Six factors of unsustainability • Inappropriate incentives • High demand for limited resource • Poverty and lack of alternatives • Complexity and lack of knowledge • Lack of good governance • Interactions of fisheries sector with other sectors and environment FAO/Japan 2003 International Workshop: on the Implementation of International Fisheries Instruments and Factors of Unsustainability and Overexploitation in Fisheries Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  5. Paths to solution Factors of unsustainability Paths to solution • Rights (1) • Transparent, participatory management (1,2,5) • Support – science, enforcement, planning (4,5) • Benefit distribution (1,3) • Integrated policy (1,3) • Precautionary approach (4,6) • Capacity building, public awareness (5) • Market incentives (1,2) • Inappropriate incentives • High demand for limited resource • Poverty and lack of alternatives • Complexity and lack of knowledge • Lack of good governance • Interactions of fisheries sector with other sectors and environment Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  6. Capacity management Fishing capacity management activities undertaken by Member States (source: FAO, 2004) Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  7. Incentive-blocking instruments • Incentive-blocking programmes are only effective in reducing capacity in the short-term • Limited entry programmes (i.e. days at sea) • Buyback / decommissioning programmes • Gear and vessel restrictions • Aggregate quotas (i.e. TACs) • Non-transferable vessel catch limits • Individual effort quotas (IEQs) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 433/1. Measuring and assessing capacity in fisheries. Basic concepts and management options. (2004). Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  8. Incentive-adjusting instruments • If management is changed to allow a fisher to internalise the social cost of exploiting the resource – by establishing cooperatives, co-management or rights-based fisheries – the consequences of overcapacity in the form of overfished stocks should be corrected • Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) • Taxes and royalties - different to cost recovery • Group fishing rights (i.e. community quotas/community-based management) • Territorial use rights (i.e. Several/Regulating Orders) Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  9. Cost of management ‘Subsidies in the Fishing Sector in Third Countries: Australia, New Zealand, Iceland, Norway, Canada, USA, Korea and Japan.’ (Studies and Support Services Related to the Common Fisheries Policy Group 2, 1999, Lot 11). Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  10. Cost of management Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  11. Cost of management Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  12. Experiences of countries Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  13. Canada • Overview • collapse of Atlantic groundfish & decline in Pacific salmon • increasing public awareness of marine health • fisheries now use species/area licensing • IQs/ITQs/IVQs for majority of groundfish/pelagics • Impact • huge sums of money spent restructuring and diversifying employment • fishing capacity and demand still high as in 1992 • slow recovery of groundfish stocks • despite initial optimistic 3-4 yrs expected recovery Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  14. Canada • Developments • introduction of quotas in Pacific salmon hot topic • 3 fishing interests: commercial, sports, ‘first-nation’ • improved communication between scientists & fishers = improved compliance • Fisheries Sustainable Development Strategy – ecosystems, improved stakeholder involvement, facilitation, shared decision-making. • Relevance • lessons to be learned from cod collapse • much improved stakeholder dialogue Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  15. Australia • Overview • AFMA manages 20 Commonwealth fisheries >3nm • State/Territory’s manage costal and rec. fisheries <3nm • 20 ITQ fisheries (single species except south-east trawl) • but majority managed using input controls • public Fishery Management Plans & cost recovery • Impact • strict management • some highly profitable fisheries in late 1990s • tradeable access licences valuable assets • concentration of ownership and entry-cost barrier Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  16. Australia • Developments • management highly participatory: incl. community, conservation & recreational interests • increasing coastal sea area set aside for MPAs and restrictions to w.r.t biodiversity / recreational issues • AFMA ‘one-off’ decommissioning planned for 2006: objective to reduce fleet by 50% • overfishing / risk of overfishing / displacement from MPAs • Relevance • mix of fisheries, interest groups and management tools • increasing role of environment Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  17. Faroes • Overview • disastrous stock collapse in early 1990s • imposed system in 1994 ‘rejected’ by industry • switch to tradeable days-at-sea instead of catch limits 1996 • closed areas to protect stocks (e.g. spawning & juveniles) • Impact • industry management choice adopted • Catch per day increased by 25-30% over 1996-2001 • Total Allowable Effort reduced 17% over 5 years • cause = new investment, technical creep, input substitution Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  18. Faroes • Developments • system required many revisions over time • 2005 government proposal on tighter effort transfer restrictions between industrial and artisanal fleet • “The original intention was….. never that money should decide which groups would survive” (Min. of Fisheries & Maritime Affairs) • Relevance • isolated and small group of islands • sector of huge importance to national economy • reactive and speedy decisions about Total Allowable Effort • solves problem of discards and improves reporting • but introduces others problems (i.e. creep) Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  19. Iceland • Overview • cod fishery decline warning signals in 1976 • effort quotas 1977-83: encouraged ‘race-to-fish’ • IVQs (limited transferability) 1984 • full ITQs 1990 • retrospective industry-funded decommissioning 1990-97 • Impact • collapse of groundfish stocks halted • profitable, concentrated fleet • explicit treatment of by-catch problem (discard ban, roll-over quota) • disagreement over who should benefit from fishery Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  20. Iceland • Relevance • isolated island, but successful fishing sector • sector of huge importance to national economy • ability of Ministry to react quickly and independently • ITQs and cost-recovery appear successful • but arguments over who shares the economic benefits Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  21. New Zealand • Overview • license limits & other input controls led to excess capacity • ITQs introduced in 1986 • 1996 Fisheries Act – sustainable utilisation & strong environmental obligations • Impact • stocks, profit, investment increased • jobs at sea down, but onshore jobs up • strict enforcement system • bycatch issues explicitly addressed (i.e. deemed value) • criticism of complexity, but fishers pay for management Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  22. New Zealand • Developments • stakeholders want more control over their activities • MoF developing ‘Fisheries Plans’ – co-mangement • new / innovative options possible, tailored for individual fisheries, recreational interests included • Strategy to Manage Environmental Effects of Fishing • draft Marine Protected Area Strategy • Relevance • isolated island - few commercial interests in some fisheries • but ITQs and cost-recovery appear successful incentives Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  23. Final thoughts? Literature Review: Long-term Management Option

  24. Final thoughts • incentives and good governance • tailored solutions – not one size for all • ‘whole’ system approach • focus on the good examples • fisheries are slow crisis? • crisis can turn good if people think outside the norm • risk management: robust, adaptive, flexible Literature Review: Long-term Management Option