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Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia: Presentation for Learning For Life

Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia: Presentation for Learning For Life

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Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia: Presentation for Learning For Life

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  1. Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia: Presentation for Learning For Life Katie Johansen, M.A., Manager Learning Services Children’s Hospital Colorado

  2. Definition of a Learning Disability • A Learning Disability is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in: • Significant difficulty in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or performing math functions • Intrinsic strengths and weaknesses specific to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction & occur across the life span. Learning Disabilities, 2007 Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs and Barnes • Unexpected weakness in relation to other skills and abilities

  3. Three Most Common LD’s • Dyslexia: 80% of all children diagnosed with a learning disability are diagnosed with dyslexia • Dyscalculia: Small number of kids actually diagnosed. Not as much research done in this area as with dyslexia • Dysgraphia: Specific learning disability that affects how easily children acquire written language and how well they use language to express their thoughts

  4. A Learning Disability is Not… • Cognitive Delay/Mental Retardation • ADHD • Autism • Deafness • Blindness • A Behavioral Disorder

  5. Dyslexia is… • a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. • These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. • Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) *Not a disorder of comprehension Often oral vocabulary and oral presentation much higher than reading

  6. Dyslexia & f-MRI Brain imaging now provides visible evidence of the reality of dyslexia; dyslexia is no longer a hidden disability.  Dyslexic Non-Impaired Reader

  7. Genetic Research • One of the strongest risk factors for dyslexia is having a close relative with reading problems, ie having a family history of dyslexia. Comparing identical and non-identical twins has shown that your genes account for about half your reading skills • Identification of chromosome 6 and 18 sites • Associations between one particular gene, named KIAA0319, and low performance in most of our tests for reading, spelling, orthography and phonology. • Source = Dr Sue Fowler • The Learning Difficulties Research Clinic,179A Oxford RoadReading

  8. Preschool Speaks later than most children (sometimes) Pronunciation/articulation difficulties (sometimes) Slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word Difficulty rhyming words, difficulty with phonemic awareness Trouble learning numbers, alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes Difficulty following directions or routines Fine motor skills slow to develop Family History! Grades K-4 Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds Confuses basic words (run, eat, want) Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and substitutions (house/home) Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+, -, x, /, =) Slow to remember facts Slow to learn new skills, relies heavily on memorization Impulsive, difficulty planning Unstable pencil grip Trouble learning about time Family History! Indicators

  9. Grades 5-8 Reverses letter sequences (soiled/solid, left/felt) Slow to learn prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other spelling strategies Avoids reading aloud Trouble with word problems Difficulty with handwriting Awkward, fist-like, or tight pencil grip Avoids writing assignments Slow or poor recall of facts Difficulty making friends Trouble understanding body language and facial expressions Family History! High School Students and Adults Continues to spell incorrectly, frequently spells the same word differently in a single piece of writing Slow reader Tired when reading Avoids reading and writing tasks Trouble summarizing Trouble with open-ended questions on tests Weak memory skills Difficulty adjusting to new settings Works slowly Poor grasp of abstract concepts Either pays too little attention to details or focuses on them too much Misreads information Family History! Indicators

  10. Intervention • “Knowing what is needed to help students is not the same thing as being able to provide it” • Kauffman, J. M., Lloyd, J. W., Baker, J., & Riedel, T. M. (1995).

  11. Intervention • Reading Instruction must be: • Direct • Structured • Systematic • Repetitious • Controlled • Intensive • *Training in processes without academic • content is ineffective

  12. What Is Learning Therapy? • Learning therapy is the treatment for most children with a learning disability. Also called remediation or intervention • A research based, structured, multisensory program grounded in the Orton Gillingham approach should be utilized

  13. Learning Resources • www.rmb-ida.org/ (International Dyslexia Association and Rocky Mountain Branch) • www.interdys.org (International Dyslexia Association) • www.ldanatl.org/ (Learning Disabilities Association of America) • www.wrightslaw.com (Legal Issues) • www.ldonline.com (Learning Disabilities Online) • www.chadd.org(Attention) • www.nrcld.org (National Research Center on Learning Disabilities) • www.ReadingRockets.org (Parent and Teacher) • www.cde.state.co.us/coloradoliteracy/ReadAct/website (Information on the READ ACT)

  14. Learning Resources-Books • PROFESSIONAL • Fletcher, J.M., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2006).  Learning Disabilities:  From Identification to Intervention. Guilford Press, New York, NY. • Pennington, B. (2008). Diagnosing Learning Disorders: A Neuropsychological Framework (2nd Ed.) The Guilford Press, New York, NY. • Wolf, Maryanne (2007). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. Harper Collins, New York, New York. • PROFESSIONAL/PARENT • Moats, L. & Dakin, K. (2007). Basic Facts about Dyslexia and Other Reading Problems. Baltimore: International Dyslexia Association. • PARENTING A STRUGGLING READER, A Guide To Diagnosing and Finding Help For Your Child’s Reading Difficulties. Susan Hall and Louisa Moats. Broadway Books, 2002. • Shaywitz, Sally. (2005). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. Alfred A. Knopf. • Tridas, E. (ed.) (2007). From ABC to ADHD: What Every Parent Should Know About Dyslexia and Other Reading Problems. Baltimore: International Dyslexia Association

  15. Network of Care • Learning Services are offered at the following locations: • *Aurora-Main campus • *Broomfield • *Littleton • *Parker • http://www.childrenscolorado.org/

  16. Audiology, Speech-Language Pathology and Learning Services: 720 777-6800 Learning Services720 777-6250