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Giovanni Seppia CENTR General Manager giovanni@centr ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005 PowerPoint Presentation
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Giovanni Seppia CENTR General Manager giovanni@centr ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

Giovanni Seppia CENTR General Manager giovanni@centr ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

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Giovanni Seppia CENTR General Manager giovanni@centr ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

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  1. The registry-registrar-registrantrelationships in the ccTLDs Giovanni Seppia CENTR General Manager giovanni@centr.org ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  2. Introducing CENTR

  3. What is CENTR? • Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries • Forum for TLD managers • Primarily ccTLDs • Also includes gTLDs • Mainly European • Membership from 5 continents • Developed and emerging TLD markets, like .AF, .IR • Open to all Top Level Domain Registries in the world ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  4. CENTR’s Membership • 3 Members categories • Full Members • Associate Members • Observers • Members vote on admission of new members ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  5. CENTR’s Membership • LITNET NOC Lithuania (.lt) • RESTENA DNS-LU Luxembourg (.lu) • NIC Malta Malta (.mt) • NIC-Mexico Mexico (.mx) • MoldData Moldova (.md) • SIDN Netherlands (.nl) • ISOCNZ New Zealand (.nz) • NORID Norway (.no), Bouvet Is. (.bv), Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is. (.sj) • Palestinian Registry Palestine (.ps) • NASK Poland (.pl) • FCCN Portugal (.pt) • RNC Romania (.ro) • Ros-NIIROS Russia (.ru) • RED.ES Spain (.es) • ARNES Slovenia (.si) • IIS Sweden (.se) • SWITCH Switzerland (.ch), Lichtenstein (.li) • SITA (.aero) • Vatican – Holy See (.va) • Nominet UK United Kingdom (.uk) • NeuStar United States of America (.us) • VeriSign (.com, .net) • Afilias (.info) • Public Interest Registry (.org) • AFGNIC Afghanistan (.af) • STA Andorra (.ad) • ISOC.AM Armenia (.am) • NIC.AC Ascension Is. (.ac), Diego Garcia (.io), St Helena (.sh) • NIC.AT Austria (.at) • DNS Belgium Belgium (.be) • Digital Systems Bulgaria (.bg) • CIRA Canada (.ca) • CARNet Croatia (.hr) • UCY-DNS Cyprus (.cy) • CZ.NIC Czech Republic (.cz) • DENIC Germany (.de) • Dansk Internet Forum (.dk) • FICORA Finland (.fi) • AFNIC France (.fr), Mayotte (.yt), Reunion (.re), St. Pierre & Miquelon (.pm), Wallis & Futuna Is. (.wf ) • GibNet Gibraltar (.gi) • GR-Hostmaster Greece (.gr) • Island Networks Guernsey (.gg), Jersey (.je) • CHIP Hungary (.hu) • IEDR Ireland (.ie) • IPM Iran (.ir) • ISNIC Iceland (.is) • ISOC-IL Israel (.il) • IT-NIC Italy (.it) • JPRS Japan (.jp) ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  6. CENTR’s structure • Executive Committee • 5 members, inclusive of Chairman and Treasurer • 2 year appointments • It steers the organisation in accordance with CENTR members’ wishes • Secretariat • General Manager • Communication Officer • Technical Officer • Administrative Officer ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  7. CENTR’s output • Newsletter, “Domain Wire”, 2 issues a year • Surveys • A-level survey, covering the registries management main aspects • B-survey, covering legal issues related to registries • Other surveys upon request of our members • Comments and positions on several topics that may have an impact on our members • Outreach programme, providing registries of developing countries with financial and technical support ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  8. CENTR’s in the international arena • The European Commission participates in CENTR as an observer • Regular contacts with ICANN-IANA staff • Associate member of the European Internet Foundation • Participation within the WGIG-WSIS process • Regular attendance of all the international Internet fora and meetings ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  9. Benefits of diverse participation • CENTR values participation from many different registries • Western and Eastern Europe, Americas, Asia, Oceania • Different regulatory regimes, Internet community expectations, use of domain names etc. • Different challenges in ensuring stable DNS/Internet • Provides added value • Brings different perspectives to discussion • Helps to define guidelines and best practices that benefit everyone • Comes to agreed opinions on certain aspects of the international arena ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  10. CENTR’s long term vision • Expanding the dialogue among registries, governments and international bodies • Developing best practice by encouraging exchange amongst registries • Improving the reliability and stability of Internet through improved DNS practices • Working closely with other Internet organisations ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  11. Some basic concepts

  12. Registry“The wholesaler” • Database of • who owns what name • pointing names to the servers responsible for them • Responsible for policy and procedures • who is entitled to names, etc. • A registry is like the “bank vault” of the domain names registered under that top level domain ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  13. Registrar and registrant • Registrar (the retailer) • Agent of customers in dealing with registry • Like a retailer which then contacts a wholesale supplier • Usually an ISP that is providing others services to customer • Registrant (the customer) • The entity, organisation or individual that uses the domain name ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  14. Registries: policies and figures

  15. Registry status* • Registry set up depends on various reasons, even though almost every registry was historically part of an academic network – today TLDs are highly competitive and there is a very dynamic market. • The legal status can be classified as: • Private company • Part of academic network • Foundation • Association • Government agency • Telecom operator • Miscellaneous *CENTR surveys data ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  16. Categorising the policies of the ccTLDs* • Two central aspects shapes the domain name policy: • Requirements for the applicant • Provide documentation that he has a right to the name • Have a local presence in the area of the ccTLD • Be an organization • Number of domain names allowed per applicant • Limited/Unlimited *courtesy of UNINETT Norid ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  17. A mapping of the policies of some ccTLDs* *courtesy of UNINETT Norid ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  18. A summary of the mapping* • Few of the respondents are currently in the strictly regulated category. This reflects the general move towards more liberalized domain name policies that has taken place • Most respondents prefer a domain name policy with no limits on the number of names an applicant may hold • While the majority of the respondents allows an unlimited number of domains per applicant, the degree of requirements for the applicant varies. • Some requires the applicant to document rights to the domain name (bureaucracy category) • Majority in the unregulated category – does not require any documentation of rights. Some require either a local presence, or that the applicant is an organization (or both), hence the spreading within the category. *courtesy of UNINETT Norid ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  19. Number of employees within the registries* Most Registries have just technical staff as a Registry is a technical function/service. Essential to adjust to a dynamic market quickly and to satisfy customer needs efficiently. *CENTR surveys data ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  20. Registry-registrar relationship

  21. Registry-registrar relationship: the accreditation Usually, the relationship between a registry and a registrar is based on a contract. Some registries require those company that like to become a registrar to follow an accreditation procedure. Criteria to be accredited: • Technical stability • Corporate status • Financial stability • Organisational stability • Other Less than 25% of registries reviews these criteria regularly ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  22. Number of registrars* *CENTR surveys data ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  23. Registry-registrar relationship: some contractual aspects When the relationship between the registry and the registrars is based on a contract, the registry should take into account some aspects: • Contract transfer and related domain names transfer • Rescue procedures for those registrants (and domain names) whose registrars “disappeared” or went bankrupted • Penalties in case the registrar is not up-to-date with the payments to the registry ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  24. Registry-registrar relationship:the code of conduct Code of conduct: • In order to ensure that the domain name holder can count on reliable information and a quality service, some registries have proposed a code of conduct to registrars • Eg. DNS.BE • Most code of conducts are based on voluntary principles, but help the users to trust the all process ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  25. Registry-registrar relationship:the code of conduct • The new “eu” domain registrar are invited to participate in building a code of practice. • Those registrars who sign up to the code will be able to display the code of conduct logo and the list of accredited registrars published on EURid's web site will indicate which registrars have the code of conduct label. • EURid will facilitate elections from amongst the participating registrars to select a panel to assess complaints against participating registrars for alleged breaches in the code of conduct. • The panel will be empowered to remove the code of conduct label from a registrar for a fixed period or a permanent basis if they are found to be operating in contradiction with the code. ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  26. Registry-registrar relationship:training activities Training activities: • Most of the registries offer their registrars training activities on: • Technical aspects • Administrative issues • Legal matters • Usually these activities are free of charges • Moreover, certain regional organisations, like CENTR, provide training activities and workshops for registries on many topics such as IDNs, registry-registrars relationship,… ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  27. Registry-registrar relationship:communication methods Communication tools: • E-mail lists • Regular meetings • Help-desks • Newsletter • Dedicated web interfaces ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  28. Registry-registrar relationship:the help-desk Help-desk significant aspects: • Working hours • Languages • Time for processing requests • Appropriate archiving procedures • Customer satisfaction follow-up • Different expertise of the operators ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  29. Registry-registrar relationship:the web interfaces Web interfaces: • Wide accessibility highly desirable • EU communication on web accessibility standards • Usually, divided in two sections: • Public information • Restricted information for registrars or ISP ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  30. Registry-registrar relationship:shared secondary servers • Most large registries informally offer free secondarying services for smaller registries • Similar, some "well known hosts", RIPE etc, offer free secondaries also • Some - usually equally sized registries - do secondary swapping arrangements, where each will host each others servers. This principle relies on registries having similar requirements and having similar facilities to share • CENTR examines opportunities to locate secondaries via different agreements (at IXs, via Anycast networks) and presents these opportunities to its members ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  31. Registry-registrar relationship:information sharing • Taking advantage of other registries experiences (the grass is greener…) via: • Discussion lists • Regional organisations • International meetings • Best practices doc ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  32. Registry-registrar relationship:key complaints* • Price • Would like to have more influence on policy/contractual terms • Bureaucracy (in case of paper based models) • Liberalisation of policies *CENTR surveys data ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  33. Registry-registrar-registrant relationship

  34. Registry-registrar-registrant relationship: some aspects Some issues in this relationship should be considered from the beginning and carefully planned: • Privacy aspects (WHOIS) • Services among parties • Interaction with the Local Internet Community • Prices of domain names and of the operations on them • Level of bureaucracy ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  35. Registry-registrar-registrant relationship: the main problems in dealing directly with customers* • Lack of knowledge (more support needed) • Make mistakes, then blame the registry • Inaccurate information in the application forms • Delayed payments • Web browsers not compatible with registry system *CENTR surveys data ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005

  36. Questions?Thanks for your attention Giovanni Seppia giovanni@centr.org www.centr.org ccTLD workshop Nairobi, 14 September 2005