Download
the study of every living thing n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The study of every living thing! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The study of every living thing!

The study of every living thing!

126 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The study of every living thing!

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The study of every living thing!

  2. 1.1 Similarities Among Living Things • Biology • Helps us understand things that impact us daily • Health & medical decisions • Environmental decisions • Food choices

  3. Biologists • Study all living things • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________

  4. Living Things • Were once thought to be filled with “_________________________”- forces that bring non-living things to life • During most of human history, many cultures believed in _________________________ - a view that living things exist because they have been filled with special forces called ethers that bring nonliving things to life

  5. ___________________________ • Arose during the Dark Ages • The belief that life begins when ethers enter nonliving things

  6. Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat • 3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- hence, supporting biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not

  7. Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat

  8. 3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- this supported biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not

  9. Biogenesis • Principle that ______________________________ • Each type of living organism produces more of its own kind, or species

  10. Francesco Redi • His work also supported another principle called _________________________ - the idea that all living and nonliving organisms obey the same laws of physics and chemistry. • Living things are more complex

  11. Living vs. Non-living • Living and non-living things are made of same materials , but living things are characterized by _________________________ • Many criteria are not unique to living systems • (Example: fire consumes energy and can reproduce, but it is not made of cells)

  12. 1. _________________________ • The degree of order in an organism. All organisms have patterns. • Specialized structures perform specific functions • All living things are made of _________________________ (the smallest unit that performs life functions)

  13. Organisms can be _________________________ (single celled) like bacteria

  14. Organism can be _________________________(many celled) like plants and humans • Each cell displays the characteristics of life

  15. Specialization (in multicellular organisms) • ___________________________________________________

  16. 2. _________________________ • Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism having to do with energy • Energy exists in different forms (sound, light and chemical)- all important to living things

  17. Where does energy come from? • All organisms take in energy from the _________________________ and use it for their life processes • Ex: Light energy enables plants to make food from carbon dioxide and water

  18. 3. _________________________ • An increase in size due to cell enlargement or division. • _________________________– formation of new cells from an existing cell

  19. 4. _________________________ • A change in shape or form to become a mature adult. • Involves cell division and specialization • Non-living things may experience growth and development (Ex: clouds growing and changing), but these changes are _________________________

  20. 5. _________________________ • When organisms produce new organisms like themselves • Not essential for organism survival • Essential for _________________ survival • Organisms pass on hereditary information in the form of ______________. • A __________ codes for a single trait. • Can result in exact duplicate (______________ reproduction) or a variation (____________ reproduction)

  21. Sexual reproduction – ______organisms pass hereditary information to offspring (DNA)

  22. Asexual reproduction – ______ organism produces an identical offspring

  23. 6. _________________________ • An organism can respond to a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment • Growth, migration, color changes, movement are all responses to environmental stimuli

  24. 7. _________________________ • A way for an entire population to respond to _________________________ • Can be passed on from generation to generation • Important for _________________________ • Explains the diversity of life we see today

  25. Adaptation (cont.) • _________________________ • Maintaining a _________________________ environment • All living things need water, temperatures within a certain range and a source of energy • Body temperature • pH • Moisture

  26. The Organization of Life • All things can be organized from their smallest to their largest pieces

  27. Atom/molecule tissue Levels of Organization cell Organ system organ biosphere biome organism ecosystem population community

  28. _________________________– building blocks of matter

  29. _________________________– building blocks of life only living things are made of cells!

  30. _________________________– a group of cells working together form tissue i.e. heart tissue or muscle tissue

  31. _________________________– a group of tissue working together for a specific purpose i.e. heart or muscles

  32. _________________________– organs working together for a specific purpose Circulatory system or muscular system

  33. _________________________– Organ systems working together form an individual or organism

  34. _________________________– a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.

  35. _________________________ - populations of animals (different species) living together in the same area.

  36. _________________________– all the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) things in an area

  37. _________________________– the similar set of biotic and abiotic species over a wide area

  38. _________________________– all of the places where living things exist on Earth

  39. 1.2: Adaptation • Conditions on Earth are _________________________. • The ability to respond and adapt to changes is one of the most important characteristics of living things. • _________________________changes: cooling and heating during the day • Animal responses occur quickly and easily with a change in _________________________ • _________________________changes: warming or cooling of Earth over thousands of years • Animal responses include _________________________.

  40. All living things are adapted to their surroundings • Species that are not well adapted do not survive they become _________________________

  41. _________________________ evidence points to the extinction of millions of species in Earth’s history

  42. How do the changes in Earth lead to changes in organisms? • Charles Darwin proposed a _________________________ to explain how organisms change over time • 1. He viewed life as a _________________________ for Earth’s limited resources • More living things are born than can survive • 2. Organisms _________________________ in their characteristics

  43. Charles Darwin (cont.)- Theory of Evolution • 3. Those organisms with certain characteristics are better able to survive and therefore reproduce • 4. The traits that enabled an organism to survive are _________________________ .

  44. Interdependence • All living things have complex interactions with their environments • All species require a precise combination of temperature, moisture, soil composition and other environmental conditions in order to survive.

  45. Some organisms are _________________________ – they rely heavily on one another for their survival • A small change to one type of organism, such as a change in population size can have a major impact on all the other organisms in an environment

  46. Predator – Prey Relationships Prey – is hunted/eaten by another species Predator – hunts/eats another species

  47. They lynx and hare populations are dependant on each other for survival.

  48. Symbiotic Relationships • Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms that depend on each other • 3 kinds: • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism

  49. Symbiotic Relationships • 1. _________________________ – Both species will benefit from the relationship Bees and flowers

  50. Symbiotic Relationships • _________________________– A relationship where one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Barnacles on whales