1.1 Similarities Among Living Things • Biology • Helps us understand things that impact us daily • Health & medical decisions • Environmental decisions • Food choices
Biologists • Study all living things • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________
Living Things • Were once thought to be filled with “_________________________”- forces that bring non-living things to life • During most of human history, many cultures believed in _________________________ - a view that living things exist because they have been filled with special forces called ethers that bring nonliving things to life
___________________________ • Arose during the Dark Ages • The belief that life begins when ethers enter nonliving things
Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat • 3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- hence, supporting biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not
Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat
3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- this supported biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not
Biogenesis • Principle that ______________________________ • Each type of living organism produces more of its own kind, or species
Francesco Redi • His work also supported another principle called _________________________ - the idea that all living and nonliving organisms obey the same laws of physics and chemistry. • Living things are more complex
Living vs. Non-living • Living and non-living things are made of same materials , but living things are characterized by _________________________ • Many criteria are not unique to living systems • (Example: fire consumes energy and can reproduce, but it is not made of cells)
1. _________________________ • The degree of order in an organism. All organisms have patterns. • Specialized structures perform specific functions • All living things are made of _________________________ (the smallest unit that performs life functions)
Organism can be _________________________(many celled) like plants and humans • Each cell displays the characteristics of life
Specialization (in multicellular organisms) • ___________________________________________________
2. _________________________ • Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism having to do with energy • Energy exists in different forms (sound, light and chemical)- all important to living things
Where does energy come from? • All organisms take in energy from the _________________________ and use it for their life processes • Ex: Light energy enables plants to make food from carbon dioxide and water
3. _________________________ • An increase in size due to cell enlargement or division. • _________________________– formation of new cells from an existing cell
4. _________________________ • A change in shape or form to become a mature adult. • Involves cell division and specialization • Non-living things may experience growth and development (Ex: clouds growing and changing), but these changes are _________________________
5. _________________________ • When organisms produce new organisms like themselves • Not essential for organism survival • Essential for _________________ survival • Organisms pass on hereditary information in the form of ______________. • A __________ codes for a single trait. • Can result in exact duplicate (______________ reproduction) or a variation (____________ reproduction)
Sexual reproduction – ______organisms pass hereditary information to offspring (DNA)
Asexual reproduction – ______ organism produces an identical offspring
6. _________________________ • An organism can respond to a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment • Growth, migration, color changes, movement are all responses to environmental stimuli
7. _________________________ • A way for an entire population to respond to _________________________ • Can be passed on from generation to generation • Important for _________________________ • Explains the diversity of life we see today
Adaptation (cont.) • _________________________ • Maintaining a _________________________ environment • All living things need water, temperatures within a certain range and a source of energy • Body temperature • pH • Moisture
The Organization of Life • All things can be organized from their smallest to their largest pieces
Atom/molecule tissue Levels of Organization cell Organ system organ biosphere biome organism ecosystem population community
_________________________– building blocks of life only living things are made of cells!
_________________________– a group of cells working together form tissue i.e. heart tissue or muscle tissue
_________________________– a group of tissue working together for a specific purpose i.e. heart or muscles
_________________________– organs working together for a specific purpose Circulatory system or muscular system
_________________________– Organ systems working together form an individual or organism
_________________________– a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.
_________________________ - populations of animals (different species) living together in the same area.
_________________________– all the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) things in an area
_________________________– the similar set of biotic and abiotic species over a wide area
_________________________– all of the places where living things exist on Earth
1.2: Adaptation • Conditions on Earth are _________________________. • The ability to respond and adapt to changes is one of the most important characteristics of living things. • _________________________changes: cooling and heating during the day • Animal responses occur quickly and easily with a change in _________________________ • _________________________changes: warming or cooling of Earth over thousands of years • Animal responses include _________________________.
All living things are adapted to their surroundings • Species that are not well adapted do not survive they become _________________________
_________________________ evidence points to the extinction of millions of species in Earth’s history
How do the changes in Earth lead to changes in organisms? • Charles Darwin proposed a _________________________ to explain how organisms change over time • 1. He viewed life as a _________________________ for Earth’s limited resources • More living things are born than can survive • 2. Organisms _________________________ in their characteristics
Charles Darwin (cont.)- Theory of Evolution • 3. Those organisms with certain characteristics are better able to survive and therefore reproduce • 4. The traits that enabled an organism to survive are _________________________ .
Interdependence • All living things have complex interactions with their environments • All species require a precise combination of temperature, moisture, soil composition and other environmental conditions in order to survive.
Some organisms are _________________________ – they rely heavily on one another for their survival • A small change to one type of organism, such as a change in population size can have a major impact on all the other organisms in an environment
Predator – Prey Relationships Prey – is hunted/eaten by another species Predator – hunts/eats another species
Symbiotic Relationships • Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms that depend on each other • 3 kinds: • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism
Symbiotic Relationships • 1. _________________________ – Both species will benefit from the relationship Bees and flowers
Symbiotic Relationships • _________________________– A relationship where one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Barnacles on whales