Let’s Talk Safety AND Sanitation
Objectives… • After studying this chapter, you will be able to: • discuss causes, symptoms, and treatment of common food-borne illnesses. • describe important standards of personal and kitchen cleanliness. • give examples of how following good safety practices can help you prevent kitchen accidents. • apply basic first aid measures in the home.
Words & Phrases to Know • Bacteria • Tiny 1 celled microorganisms found everywhere in the environment. • They multiply rapidly in the right conditions & some may cause food born illnesses.
Other Food-related Illnesses… • Parasitic infections • Trichinosis (undercooked pork) • Illnesses caused by protozoa • Giardiasis (polluted water) • Viral diseases • Hepatitus A (raw shellfish) • Natural poisons • Rhubarb leaves or certain mushrooms
Examples: • Botulism • E.coli infection • Listeriosis • Salmonellosis • Staphylococcal poisoning
Potentially Hazardous Foods • Moist, high protein foods • Foods that are great places for bacteria to grow • Meat (ground beef) • Poultry • Eggs • Dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt, etc.) • Canned foods • Seafood
Yeast spoilage Bubbles or foam Slime Mold spoilage Various colors of fuzzy growth Circular pattern of growth Other signs Off odor Discoloration Mushy texture Bulging or corroded can Cloudy appearance Soft spots or breaks in the skin on fruits & veggies Signs of Food Spoilage • If you suspect a food is spoiled, DO NOT TASTE IT.
Contaminated Foods Foods that contain harmful bacteria Cross Contamination the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to the next. Harmful bacteria can also be transferred from another source such as hands. Danger Zone The range of temperatures at which most bacteria multiply rapidly- between 40* and 140* Foodborne Illness Sickness caused from eating contaminated food; sometimes called food poisoning.
Kitchen Sanitation… • Kitchen cleanliness • Keep work area clean • Use clean utensils & containers • Never use dish towels to wipe hands or spills • Wash tops of cans before opening them • Sanitize counters & cutting boards • Keep pets & insects out of kitchen • Wash dishes & utensils promptly • Dispose of garbage promptly • Never store foods under the sink
Microorganisms • Tiny living things such as bacteria that can only be seen with a microscope. • Personal Hygiene • Cleanliness, keeping yourself clean. • Wash Hands BEFORE, DURING & AFTER handling food • Perishable Food • Foods that can become unsafe or spoil quickly if not refrigerated or frozen quickly. • Main reason for Food Borne Illness!!!
Food Prep and Storage • First in - First out: • Use food supplies in the same order in which they were received • Thaw foods properly • Do not allow foods to sit out for more than 2 hours • Use foods within recommended storage time • Reject or discard a canned food product if it is: • Dented • Rusty • Swollen
Safety in the Kitchen • Preventing Chemical Poisonings • Keep all hazardous products out of the reach of children • Read warning labels • If interrupted while using a hazardous product, put it away or take it with you • Wash fruits & vegetables before use
Preventing Fires • Avoid wearing loose clothing & roll up long sleeves • Tie hair back • Wet matches before throwing them away • Keep aerosol cans away from heat • Clean up all grease
Preventing Burns • Use a POT HOLDER!!! • Keep fire extinguisher nearby • Lift pot lids away from you • Dry foods before putting them in hot grease • Keep pan handles away from front of range
Preventing Falls • Wipe up spills immediately • Use a stool to reach high up • Preventing Poisonings • Keep all chemicals away from food storage areas • Keep food out of range when spraying chemicals • Wipe counters well when done spraying
Preventing Food-Borne Illness • Wear clean clothes • Use clean equipment • Do not use hand towels to dry dishes • Wear gloves when necessary • Don’t lick fingers/utensils while cooking • Wash cutting board after each use • Wash dishes in HOT water • Wash tops of cans before opening • Wash fruits and vegetables before preparation • Do not use damaged canned goods • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
Safe Ways to Thaw Foods • On the bottom shelf of the refrigerator • Under cold, running water • In the microwave • In the oven as part of the cooking process
Unsafe Ways to Thaw foods • On the kitchen counter • Under warm or hot water • On the top shelf of the refrigerator
Temperatures • Cold temperatures help prevent bacteria from multiplying • Temperature Danger Zone (40-140°F) • When taking the temperature of a roast: • Insert thermometer in the thickest part of meat • Wait 15 seconds after the needle or digital readout has stopped before reading temperature • To safely reheat leftovers that have been in the fridge, heat them to at least 165ºF or higher
6 Factors for bacterial growth… • Food • Acidity • Temperature • Time • Oxygen • Moisture
8 Steps to Proper Hand Washing • Turn on water (as hot as you can stand) • Wet hands • Apply soap • Lather and scrub for at least 30 seconds, scrubbing all areas including under fingernails • Rinse under running water • Dry with paper towel • Turn off water with paper towel • Check hands and fingernails
Kitchen Safety • Preventing cuts & minor injuries • Hold knife down when carrying it • Cut down & away from yourself when using a knife • Do not leave drawers & cupboard doors open • Turn off appliances before cleaning • Wash knives separately • If you drop a knife, let it fall