School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale, Readiness, Features George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut August 20, 2008 www.pbis.org www.cber.org George.firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE • Review SWPBS rationale, features, & examples • Review strategies for keeping SWPBS going
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
“141 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.
5,100 referrals = 76,500 min @15 min = 1,275 hrs = 159 days @ 8 hrs
2 WORRIES • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
Erroneous assumption that student… • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback.
VIOLENCE PREVENTION? • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort
Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
ESTABLISHING A CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound/PCP • Special Education Audit Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes Establish decision rules (RtI) ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach & encourage positive SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Effective instruction • Parent engagement ~80% of Students
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
SWPBS Subsystems School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student
School-wide 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
Non-classroom • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged • Active supervision by all staff • Scan, move, interact • Precorrections & reminders • Positive reinforcement
Classroom • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction • Active supervision • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors • Effective academic instruction & curriculum
Individual Student • Behavioral competence at school & district levels • Function-based behavior support planning • Team- & data-based decision making • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
Family • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner • Access to system of integrated school & community resources
PBS Systems Implementation Logic Visibility Funding Political Support Leadership Team Active & Integrated Coordination Training Evaluation Coaching Local School Teams/Demonstrations
Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Problem Behavior Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan • Team-based • Behavior competence Intervention & Support Plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle
Only 2 Basic Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified
MORE INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE INDIRECT MORE DIRECT COMPLICATED DIFFICULT FORMAL
When has FBA been done? • Clear & measurable definition of problem behaviors. • Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement is provided. • Statement of function (purpose) of behavior 3. Data (direct observation) to confirm testable hypothesis. • Behavior intervention plan based on testable hypothesis • Contextually appropriate supports for accurate implementation
Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
Summary Statement Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Lack of peer contact in 30 min. Noncompli-ance, profanity, physical aggression Avoid task, remove from class. Do difficult math assignment. Function Acceptable Alternative Why is function important? Ask for break, ask for help. Because consequences compete!!
٭ Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Acceptable Alternative
Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Consequence Manipulations
George.email@example.com Robh@uoregon.edu www.pbis.org www.cber.org