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Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy

Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy

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Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy

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  1. Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy

  2. Foreign Policy • Monroe Doctrine: Example: Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, after an 11 year war. Spain could not re-colonize it.

  3. Foreign Policy • 1898 – Spanish American War • “Jingoism” and yellow journalism • Started to assist Cuba in their quest for independence from Spain • Sent USS Maine to Havana to protect Americans – Blown up in Havana Harbor • Spread quickly to Spanish held territories in Asia • Result – America acquired ___ new territories

  4. Spanish-American War • __________ – remains unincorporated US territory • __________– now an incorporated US territory • ______ – allowed to become independent only after including “Platt Amendment” to their constitution • Platt Amendment allows American interference for virtually any reason (Military intervention 5 times between 1906 and 1961)

  5. Philippine Insurrection • Philippine Islands • After throwing off Spanish rule, sought independence • USA refused • Filipinos fought unsuccessfully for over 2 years • Lost approx. ___________ people, more than half civilians • Allowed independence after __________

  6. On March 7, 1906, US troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood massacred as many as 1,000 Filipino Muslims, known as Moros, who were taking refuge at Bud Dajo, a volcanic crater on the island of Jolo in the southern Philippines. US soldiers pose for the camera in the aftermath of the massacre. (Photo from The National Archive)

  7. Foreign Policy • Roosevelt Corollary • USA would intervene in domestic issues in the Western hemisphere if security was an issue • “________________________________and you will go far.” • ___________ Diplomacy – Panama Canal

  8. Foreign Policy • Taft’s ____________________ • Financial support to regimes that supported the USA government and industry • Protect US financial interest with the military if necessary “…United States shall extend all proper support to every legitimate and beneficial American enterprise abroad. “ William Howard Taft

  9. Foreign Policy • Wilson’s ___________________ • condemn • spread • stay out of • reverse previous mistakes • The Philippines – • Granted territorial status and step toward future independence • Puerto Rico – • Puerto Ricans became naturalized citizens, granted by Congress, not the Constitution. They do not have full rights. (Amended in 1940 to full citizenship) • Panama Canal – ended free tolls for American companies

  10. Foreign Policy - Mexico: • Background • (1810 – 1866) Conflicts with Spanish, French, and their own governments – power changed hands several times • (1876 – 1911) President Porfirio Diaz assumed power • *repressive regime • *increased industrial strength and foreign investment • *benefited wealthy landowners and foreigners

  11. Madero – Wealthy landowner that ran for office and lost – started the Mexican Revolution that toppled Diaz; Madera became President. • Victoriano Huerta and others overthrew Madera in a coupe 1913 • Rebel leaders Venustiano Carranza, Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Alvaro Obregon continued to fight • Zapata – Native American Revolutionary in the south

  12. Mexico: • US Intervention (1913-1914) • Wilson refused to recognize Huerta • Tampico Incident – US sailors from the USS Dolphin were arrested in the port of Tampico and released unharmed. Infuriated Americans. • Germany sent an arms supply to Mexico to aid Huerta; Americans seized the port of Vera Cruz • Argentina, Brazil, Chile (ABC) organized a proposal for a provisional government and Huerta was ousted in 1914.

  13. Mexico: • Revolution Winds Down – 1915 • After Huerta fled, Villa and Zapata controlled 2/3 of Mexico • Venustiano Carranza returned to Mexico and became “1st Chief” • The US recognized Carranza

  14. Mexico: • Pancho Villa’s raid • 10 civilians, 8 soldiers died; town was destroyed; 100 Mexicans died • _________________________entered Mexico to apprehend Villa • After searching for almost a year, Wilson recalled him.

  15. Mexico: • 1916 - V. Carranza called a constitutional convention and re-organized the government • Called for placing public welfare above individual interests • Nationalized ______________________. • 1917 – received __________________from Germany

  16. Moralistic Diplomacy Failures • Haiti – invaded & occupied for 19 years; 10,000 Haitians died resisting (1915-1934) • USA sent navy to Haiti 26 times between 1849 and 1913 • Dominican Republic – invaded and occupied for 8 years (1916-1924) • Mexico – Chasing Pancho Villa (1917) • Cuba and Panama (1918) • World War I – could not maintain a biased neutrality

  17. The Road to War • Causes of World War I • Imperialism • Militarism • Nationalism • Alliances

  18. The Road to War • Imperialism • Search for new colonies in • France & United Kingdom - prime colonies • Japan - newcomer but colonized Korea, Taiwan, & parts of China • _________ – new but lacking in strength • _________, youngest country, trying to establish an empire

  19. The Road to War • Militarism • Belief that a countries problems can be solved with • Buildup of military forces • Military has control over ______________ • _________________- as countries industrialized they began to see themselves as invincible

  20. The Road to War • Nationalism • Defined simply as pride in one’s country • _____________ to the ‘nth’ degree • Countries acted solely in their own self-interest • Pride in country centered around _____________; other groups were inferior • Groups that want their own countries (Kurds)

  21. The Road to War • Alliances • European powers that pledged mutual protection • Took what should have been an isolated incident and expanded it into a _____________ • Countries thought they were ______________ because of their alliances

  22. The Road to War The spark that ignited the powder keg: • ________ was a province of the Austrian-Hungarian empire • ________________visited Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on June 28, 1914 • Assassinated by _______________ • July 28, 1914 ___________ declared war on __________

  23. The Road to War

  24. Serbian killed F.F. A-H declared war on Serbia Russia allied w/ Serbia Germany allied w/ A-H Germany invaded France through Belgium France allied w/ Russia U.K. allied w/ Belgium World War I

  25. The Road to War • Central Powers – • Allied Powers –

  26. The Great War begins _______________:

  27. The Great War • Germany invaded France via Belgium • Came within 30 miles of Paris • Offensive by French & British held them back at the Marne • Trench warfare began in September of 1914

  28. The Great War • Germans reached a _________ in France • Russians invaded to their east - became a two front war for the Germans • Germans used _________- to try to cut-off supplies and troop movements from the U.K. • British blockaded the _________and created severe food shortages in Germany

  29. The Great War Offenses • Verdun – German offensive • Feb. 24, 1916 – Dec. 18, 1916 • Germans used poison gas on the French • No strategic gain for either side • Casualties • French • German • Total casualties

  30. The Great War • Somme – offensive by French/British forces • July 1, 1916 to November 18,1916 • Used tanks in battle (with little effect) • Offensive ended with Allied Forces gaining a total of 18 kilometers • Casualties • British - • French - • Germans - • Total – over

  31. The Great War • America declared it neutrality and continued to trade with both sides • 1/3 of the American population was made up of ______________________________ • Irish immigrants initially side with the Central Powers • Many Americans oppose warfare and militarism on principle and want to stay out of the war

  32. The Great War • Gradually public opinion shifted toward the Allied Powers • Propaganda played a major role in this shift • Business leaders pressured Congress to prepare for war to protect their trade and assets in the U.K. and France

  33. The United States Declares War • “_______________” ended when the British began arming merchant ships • Early in 1915 Germany advised Americans not to travel on British liners • ____________ traveled from New York to the U.K. in May, 1915 with over 1200 passengers and ‘miscellaneous’ cargo

  34. The United States Declares War • German U-boat encountered the in the • Fired a torpedo and it sank within a few minutes • Over 1200 people, including 128 Americans, died • German claimed it was transporting

  35. The United States Declares War • Immediate demands were made to declare war on Germany • President Wilson urged patience • Germans pledged to stop shooting unarmed vessels • War was averted in 1915 • Wilson vowed in 1916 to stay out of the war

  36. The United States Declares War • American industries continued to do business with the British • U-boats were not very effective • Cut off from Germany by British blockade

  37. The United States Declares War • The _______________began in February, 1917. • Overthrew the monarchy and soldiers mutinied • Allied position weakened – fighting shifted to the Western front • USA had been reluctant to support _______________

  38. The United States Declares War • While General Pershing continued to chase Pancho Villa around Mexico….. • _______________________was intercepted and made public

  39. The United States Declares War • Note was intercepted by the British and turned over to the Americans in March, 1917 • From German Foreign Minister to German Ambassador to Mexico • Proposed

  40. Zimmerman Note Text of Decoded message: "We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANN.

  41. The United States Declares War • Early in 1917 Germans reneged on their pledge and began sinking merchant vessels • Under pressure from the USA they made the ____________, promising not to shoot on unarmed vessels without warning • Within weeks they reneged on their pledge

  42. The United States Declares War • American bankers and industrialists pressured Wilson to declare war • Russian Revolution put pressure on the Allies • Zimmerman note built resentment toward Germany • Reneging of the Sussex Pledge signaled the end of negotiations On April 2, 1917 President Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. Congress quickly complied

  43. Americans on the European Front • America needs time to prepare for war • American troops help turn the tide in Europe • Conditions in Europe are horrendous

  44. Americans on the European Front • Selective Service Act - May 1917 • Males age 21-30 required to register • By wars end, 2,800,000 were actually drafted • Thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses, drivers, and clerks • General Pershing is the commander of US troops in Europe • Troops were strictly ___________ - African Americans and Latinos served in separate units with ‘white’ officers

  45. Americans on the European Front 1917 • Millions of troops needed to be trained and shipped to Europe • Men were trained in the use of rifles, bayonets, gas masks, and grenades • Ships used the ____________to reduce losses • American Expeditionary Force - called _________________

  46. Americans on the European Front 1917-1918 • _______________continued in France • Germany signed a _______________with Russia in March, 1918 • Germany immediately began new offensives along the western front • The Allied Powers struggled to hold the lines - Germans were within 50 miles of Paris (again)

  47. Americans on the European Front • In ____________the Americans entered the fighting in force • Throughout France, fresh American troops helped to turn back the German offensive • By _______________the Germans were in full retreat

  48. Americans on the European Front • Aircraft were successfully utilized in World War I by both sides • Bi-planes engaged in dogfights, reconnaissance missions, and bombing raids • Both sides had heroes - aces that shot down enemy planes • __________________________were also used

  49. Americans on the European Front • African American units segregated • not allowed to serve in marines • kept out of combat in navy and army • 369th infantry