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Lecture Goals PowerPoint Presentation
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Lecture Goals

Lecture Goals

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Lecture Goals

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  1. Lecture Goals • Introduction to the major groups of zooplankton • Discussion of common and distinguishing characteristics of these groups • Important controls on distribution and abundance of zooplankton

  2. Approach to Freshwater Animals • Descriptions of major groups, organized taxonomically when possible • Some morphology, but I will focus on life history and ecology • Life History: changes experienced by an individual between birth and death that determine habitat requirements, ecology, and reproductive output • Ecology: interactions among species, or between the focal species (stage) and physical habitat

  3. What are zooplankton? • Microscopic animals that float freely in the water column • Very important as primary consumers – converting energy from phytoplankton to a form that can be used by larger animals • Important food base for secondary consumers, including fish

  4. Major groups of freshwater zooplankton • Rotifers • Cladocerans • Copepods

  5. Rotifers • 50 μm – 3 mm • Smallest metazoan

  6. Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species http://tolweb.org/tree/

  7. Rotifer Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Rotifera Class Order Family Genus Species

  8. Rotifer Diversity **High diversity in morphology

  9. STRESS Cyclical Parthenogenesis*

  10. Resting Eggs

  11. Cyclical Parthenogenesis

  12. Rotifer Life Cycle No Molting → Cell Expansion

  13. Rotifer Colonies

  14. Major groups of freshwater zooplankton • Rotifers • Cladocerans • Copepods

  15. Cladocerans 0.5 mm – 3 mm

  16. Cladoceran Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Crustacea Orders: Cladocera Family: Daphniidae and Bosminidae Genus Species

  17. Cladoceran Families Daphniidae Bosminidae **High diversity in morphology

  18. Cyclical Parthenogenesis*

  19. Cladoceran Eggs

  20. Cladoceran Life Cycle

  21. Cyclical Parthenogenesis

  22. Ephippium

  23. Cyclical Parthenogenesis

  24. Major groups of freshwater zooplankton • Rotifers • Cladocerans • Copepods

  25. Copepods 1.0 mm – 8.5 mm

  26. Copepod Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Crustacea Orders: Cyclopoida, Calanodia, Harpacticoid Family Genus Species

  27. Copepod Orders Cyclopoid Calanoid Harpacticoid **Low diversity in morphology

  28. Copepod Egg Sacs Cyclopoid

  29. Copepod Egg Sacs Calanoid

  30. Copepod Egg Sacs Harpacticoid

  31. Copepod Life Cycle

  32. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  33. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  34. Zoop Distribution and Abundance: Temperature  Nutrients

  35. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  36. Zoop Distribution and Abundance: Physical  Phish  Phytoplankton

  37. Zooplankton Population Dynamics

  38. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  39. Zoop Distribution and Abundance: Vertical Migration Pattern • Variation with stage and sex • Light is proximal cue • 3 main hypotheses

  40. Vertical Migration Hypotheses: Predation

  41. Vertical Migration Hypotheses: Food Quality

  42. Vertical Migration Hypotheses: High Feeding Efficiency Growth and Feeding Efficiency as a Function of Temperature “Hunt warm, rest cool” High Growth Efficiency

  43. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  44. Zoop. Distribution and Abundance: Parthenogenic-Sexual Cycles VS.

  45. Parthenogenic-Sexual Cycles Asplanchna Paramecium + = Amictic ♀♀ Amictic ♀♀

  46. Parthenogenic-Sexual Cycles Chlamydomonas Asplanchna Paramecium + = + Euglena Amictic ♀♀

  47. Enlargement Large Mictic ♀♀ Sex Mictic ♀♀ with “Humps” Parthenogenic-Sexual Cycles Mictic ♀♀ = Mictic ♂♂

  48. Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance • Temperature  Nutrients • Physical Phactors  Phish  Phytoplankton • Vertical Migration • Parthenogenic ↔ Sexual Cycles • Predation among Zooplankton

  49. Zoop. Distribution and Abundance: Predation among zooplankton

  50. Predation Among Zooplankton Cyclomorphosis