Feudal Society • Social • Could not change social position • Kings, Lords/Nobles, Knights, Serfs • Political • Leading Nobles controlled everything • Knights protected the nobles and enforced rule • Built Castles that sometimes rivaled the King • Fought among themselves • Economic • Manorialism • Provided and produced everything for survival • Serfs- farmers • Protected by the Noble from outsiders for their service • Bound to the Land
Culture • Life Style • Peasants • Lived on the Manor • Produced the food- worked long hours in the fields • Lived in two room cottages- Farm animals often lived inside the home • Women • Role determined by the attitudes of the church and nobility-Below the Man • Biblical story of Eve-disobedience in the Garden of Eden • Nobility • Spent most of the time in prayer and domestic chores • Peasants • Worked along side of man in fields • Ran home and took care of livestock
Feudalism/Manorialism • Feudalism – political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages, when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service • Knights/Vassals- Warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leaders and fought for them, the leaders, in turn, took care of the warriors’ needs. • Vassal – a man who served a lord in a military capacity.
Technology • Agriculture • Three-field system • 1. 2 fields planted on for a year and 1 was left Fallow (unplanted) • Fallow field was rotated every year between the 3 fields • Collar • New collar for a horse that would not choke them • Plow • carruca -New Iron wheeled plow • Architecture • Flying Buttress and ribbed vaulted ceilings
Wars • Invasion of England by France • Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 Normans of France take control of England • The battle also established the superiority of the combined arms attack • Archers, Calvary and Infantry • II. Crusades: Wars fought between the Christians and Muslims over the Holy Land (Jerusalem). • Byzantine Empire Called for help • Issued by Pope Urban IIin 1095 • Causes: • Religious zeal (pride) • Get rid of bad knights. • Money • The consequences: • The Middle East (Asia) & Europe began trading Again • Weakened the power of nobles. • Pope’s power weakened.
Wars… • III. Hundred Years War- England and France • When the last French king died without an heir, England’s King Edward III tried to take the French throne. • This battling back and forth between 1337- 1453 became known as the Hundred Year’s War. • Characteristics • War was fought on French land. • New Weapons • English Long Bow… later on Gunpowder, cannons • Kings had their own soldier • France ended up winning the war. • Joan of Arc-Young French maiden God told her to save France • Pretended to a male and rallied the soldiers • Captured by the English burned at the stake as a witch