5TH URBAN AND CITY MANAGEMENT COURSE FOR AFRICAFACE-TO-FACE VERSION AND DISTANCE LEARNING VERSIONOCTOBER 20 TO 24, 2003
MODULE II:ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING ANTI-POVERTY STRATEGIES AND ACTION INCLUDING GENDER MAINSTREAMINGBYDR. (MRS.) ELLEN BORTEI-DOKU ARYEETEY&MRS. CYNTHIA A. ADDOQUAYE TAGOE
OBJECTIVE OF THE MODULE • To explain the use of organizational development framework for creating anti-poverty strategies and action. • This module also examines the need for gender mainstreaming in problem solving and decision making processes.
More specifically, it deals with • Organizational development as a tool for managing change • Organizational development as a collaborative problem solving approach • Management of organizational culture for effective outcomes • The relationship between culture, strategy, structure and processes • The importance of cross-functional team building in municipal project management • Gender as a facilitation of participation of women, men, girls and boys in organizational processes.
THE ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT APPROACH:INTRODUCTION • Every organisation is an open system and as such is affected by its external environment. • As new demands are made on organizations, they either respond with innovative goods and services to be able to continue to maintain their relevance or they remain oblivious of the changes going on around, thus reducing their marketability and effectiveness in their market niche.
INTRODUCTION (CONTD.) • Organisations are facing unrelenting pressure to provide better quality services. Many need to undergo significant changes to develop and deliver services in cost effective ways that customers and citizens want. • The relevance of organisational development to this course is seen in the current challenges of urbanization and its subsequent pressure on goods and services provided by local authority including municipal and district councils and assemblies.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS A TOOL FOR MANAGING CHANGEDefinition of Organisation Development • “A system-wide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organisational strategies, structures and processes for improving an organisation's effectiveness" (Cummings and Worley,1997) • “A holistic process of planned change and improvement to assist organisations in responding to their dynamic environment through the effective diagnosis and management of their structure, systems and culture” (Adapted from various sources)
Definition of Organisation Development (contd.) • French and Bell (1999) defined ‘organisational development’ as a long-term effort to improve an organisation's visioning, empowerment, learning and problem-solving processes through the collaborative management of organisational culture.
FOUNDATIONAL PROCESSES AND PRACTICES • A planned process of change; • A process that is participative and empowering; • Clear and on-going communication; • Support for teams and teamwork that encourages ownership and management of processes, systems and relationships; • Structures that promote innovation, learning and change; • Action research processes that combine learning and doing – an iterative process where the lessons from one inform the actions of the other.
“Hard” issues/activities of OD • Strong managerial and political leadership • Identification of strategic goals and long term direction – using techniques such as scenario planning • Evaluation of current organisational impact and performance in key areas – including identification of strengths and weaknesses and predictions for the future • Challenging existing practice to ensure continuous improvement • Identification of organisational capability gaps and how they might best be filled – including workforce planning • Remodelling of structures, systems and tasks • Allocating sufficient resources to support implementation – including making difficult choices about whether some existing operations should continue
“Softer” issues/activities of OD • Consultation with stakeholders • Motivation of staff to ensure “buy in” – by ensuring they are aware of why the organisation needs to develop and keeping them involved in the change process • Identification of required shifts in culture and ethos • Identification and development of required behaviours, skills and knowledge
THE GOAL OF “OD” • OD seeks to create self-directed change to which people are committed. The problems and issues to be solved are those identified by the organization’s members who are directly concerned with and affected by them. • OD is an organizationwide change effort. Making lasting changes that create a more effective organization requires an understanding of the entire organization. Changing part of the organization is not possible without changing the entire organization in some sense.
THE GOAL OF “OD” (contd.) • OD typically places equal emphasis on solving immediate problems and the long-term development of an adaptive organization. The most effective change programme is not one that just solves present problems but on that also prepares individuals to solve future problems. • OD places more emphasis than do other approaches on a collaborative process of data collection, diagnosis and action for arriving at solutions to problems. • OD has a dual emphasis on organizational effectiveness and human fulfillment through the work experience.
ACTIVITIES INTEGRAL TO OD • A clear sense of direction • Strong leadership and a focus on people management issues including the management of performance and the promotion of learning • Creativity and innovation are essential. • Feedback • Sharing ideas across the organisation and the community, and • evaluating progress
APPROPRIATE ‘CLIMATE’ FOR SUSTAINED OD • Identification of key priorities and organisational purpose • Identification of key obstacles and how these might be overcome • Identification of key people management and development implications as the organisation develops • Management of performance • Promotion of learning, development and the sharing of knowledge • Promotion of creativity and innovation
APPROPRIATE ‘CLIMATE’ FOR SUSTAINED OD (CONTD.) • Ensuring staff, elected members and the wider community understand why the organisation must develop and how they can contribute • Development of mechanisms for giving/receiving feedback and sharing ideas at all levels within the organisation and with stakeholders • Establishment of processes for consultation/planning and evaluation
Managing Change in an Organisation • Change is the one constant in local government and how to manage that change is the big challenge. The Employers’ Organisation (EO) believes that sound Organisational Development skills and techniques can play a vital role in achieving organisational change because they focus directly on people - the greatest driver of change and the greatest potential blockage.
Important Instruments of Organisational Development for Change • Innovativeness • Priority-based resource allocation • Strategic investment in capacity building • Introduction of new relevant units to facilitate planning and management of change processes such as anti-poverty programmes • Development of enforceable urban and city management policies that not only enforce bye-laws for promoting a healthy living environment, but also protect the poor from disaster and exploitation.
Case study - The Civil Service Performance Improvement Programme (CSPIP) • Self-appraisal and diagnostic workshops, based on thinking backwards from policy goals to outputs and activities, and facilitated in each civil service department by an in-house Capacity Development Team; • Beneficiary assessments on departmental performance, carried out by independent consultants, which are fed into the diagnostic workshops, helping to shape a PIP for the department; • Top-down validation, analysis and review of PIPs; and • The signing of a chain of performance-improvement agreements between departments, administrative heads and ministers.
Organisational Development as a Collaborative Problem Solving Approach for Anti-Poverty Strategies and Actions Problem-Solving Approach • A primary change process associated with and used in most OD programmes is action research, which consists of 3 essential steps namely: • Gathering information about problems, concerns and needed changes from the members of an organization; • Organizing this information in some meaningful way and sharing it with those involved in the change effort, and • Planning and carrying out specific actions to correct identified problems.
Important Instruments • Stakeholders analysis for consensus building and contribution to the goal • Involvement through regular consultation, backed up by timely, accessible information about the vision and activities of the partnership; • Representatives from stakeholder groups actively involved in the decision making. • Spending time considering what aims are to achieved. • Informing stakeholders of planned activities; • Testing plans with stakeholders who will be affected and to receive their feedback; • Finding out aspirations to inform partnership priorities
Important Instruments (cont.) • Establishment of multi-agency oversight bodies to bring together leaders in the field of urban and city management and allied fields such as legal services, financial services, etc • Introduction of innovative record keeping for management information systems (MIS), which would provide baseline information on the poor, as well as documentation of best practices to facilitate collaborative planning • Coordination of civil society organizations’ activities in districts and sub-metros to ensure that resources are well spent to the benefit of the poor and duplication is minimized through working with the local authority bodies to select communities and areas for assistance and to engage specific sectors of the community to assist in delivering the plans • Establishment of regular line of communication across departments and agencies to ensure their timely interaction
Management of Organizational Culture for Effective Outcomes:Definition of Organizational Culture • Deal and Kennedy (1988) defined the culture of an organization as ‘the way we do things round here’. • Riley (1983 p.437) defined it as ‘why the organization is what it is’, These definitions can be considered simple in the wake of new ones which focus on ideologies, norms, customs, shared values and beliefs which characterize an organization (Nystrom (1990).
Definition of Organizational Culture (cont.) • Jaques (1952) for example defines culture as the ‘customary and traditional way of thinking and doing things, which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all members, and which new members must learn and at least partially accept in order to be accepted’ (p.251). • A more modern definition depicts culture as the ‘software of the mind’, that is, ‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’ (Hofstede, 1994 p.5)
Definition of Organizational Culture (cont.) • Organizational culture represents a complex pattern of beliefs, expectations, ideas, values, attitudes and behaviours shared by the members of an organization (Hatch (1993), Schein (1996), Trice and Beyer (1992). The organisation’s culture is likely to influence organization design decisions about the delegation of authority or the use of teams.
More specifically, organizational culture includes: • Routine behaviours when people interact, such as organizational rituals and ceremonies and the language commonly used; • the norms that are shared by work groups throughout the organization, such as ‘a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay’; • the dominant values held by an organization such as ‘providing quality service’ • the philosophy that guides an organization’s policies towards its employees and customers; • the rules of the game for getting along in the organization or the ‘ropes’ that a newcomer must learn in order to become an accepted member; and • the feeling or climate conveyed in an organization by the physical layout and the way in which members of the organization interact with customers and other outsiders (Schein, (1985)
Important Instruments • Adoption of periodic review of behaviours and attitudes, as well as operational techniques, as a means of overhauling less effective approaches • Re-orientation of local authority staff to develop result-oriented approach to delivery of goods and services • Address quality of communication between collaborating agencies and evolve more cross-functional team building
Important Instruments (cont.) • Adoption of more proactive stance on issues of direct interest to poverty reduction like having specific programmes or strategies to increase household income which will increase in the household’s use of public goods and services since they will be able to pay for them. Supporting community credit schemes could also serve as an entry point in reducing poverty. This stance could also help solve the internal revenue mobilization problem. • Institutionalization of advocacy • Build commitment to public-private partnership to meet local authority objectives through such collaboration
Important Instruments (cont.) • In managing organizational culture for effective outcomes, there is the need to identify the organisation's cultureand learn how to build a high performing culture that maximises the value of human talent and organisational structures, systems and technologies. An underlying assumption of cultural change is that an organization’s culture and its performance or effectiveness are directly related. Thus, the rationale for attempting cultural change is to create a more effective organization (Hellriegel et al., 1998)
Challenges of the Decentralisation Process (District Assembly) • The need for coordination of actors and building linkages • Institutional Problems • Human Resource Issues • Expenditure and Revenue Mobilisation • Participation in Decision Making Process and Criteria for Allocation of Funds • Allocation Efficiency (the extent to which public expenditure reflects local demand
The Way Out • Work out new and efficient methods of revenue mobilization in partnership with civil society and the private sector in general • Embarking on advocacy campaigns for public behaviour change • Reconstruct district specific objectives into the national poverty reduction strategy • Itensifying training and general orientation to community management. It has been learnt from local initiatives that far more is achieved with fewer resources when local organisations work with groups formed by the urban poor.
Gender Mainstreaming as a Means of Facilitation of participation of Women, Men, Girls and Boys in Organizational Processes
Definition of Gender Mainstreaming • Gender Mainstreaming is about incorporating women and gender relevant issues into planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of organisation’s activities. Gender mainstreaming is designed to bridge existing gaps and to ensure gender equity
Important instruments • Incorporating women and gender relevant issues into planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of organizations’ activities • Identification of gender culture of organizations as a learning process • Orientation to gender analysis as a planning tool aimed at promoting change in attitudes • Identification of gaps in equity that need to be addressed within organizations and in the context of organizational goods and services • Establishment of partnerships between men and women, boys and girls as partners in development through regular consultation with beneficiaries and other stakeholders • Inclusion of gender monitoring indicators in Monitoring and Evaluation
Case study - Ghana’s implementation of affirmative action in leadership of organizations, boards and corporations • The Affirmative Action is a reliable way of ensuring women’s development and access to decision-making positions. The Affirmative Action Policy Statement of the Government of Ghana sought to bridge the gap between men and women and to seek special provisions for women’s participation in employment, public office and education.
Affirmative Action (cont.) • In local government, a 30% quota of the government-appointed members of the district assemblies, has been provided for women’s participation. Beyond the District level, community-based programmes are now actively seeking the participation of women. • In the same vein, girl-child education is being promoted at all levels with various programmes. These include: • The National Action Plan on Girls’ Education which specially targets girls’ enrolment and retention at the basic and secondary levels • The Science, Technology, Mathematics Education Clinics for girls is aimed at increasing girls’ participation in the SMT subjects. • Scholarships are also award to disadvantaged girls in to enable them further their education
Conclusion • Organisational Development is a framework and mechanism for evaluating current organisational performance and co-ordinating change and improvement across the whole organisation • For this process to be effective it is critical that there is commitment from top management staff. Other staff members need to be made aware of the reasons for organisational development and must be equipped with the appropriate skills and tools to support the organisational development process. Since gender mainstreaming also involves change, consideration must be given to it to make organizations benefit from the full potential of the human resources at their disposal.