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Computer Forensics Use of Malicious Input PowerPoint Presentation
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Computer Forensics Use of Malicious Input

Computer Forensics Use of Malicious Input

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Computer Forensics Use of Malicious Input

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  1. Computer Forensics Use of Malicious Input

  2. Buffer and Heap Overflow Attacks • Standard Tool to Break Into Systems. • Used for Access Escalation. • Very Common. • Prototype of an Attack Mode.

  3. Beware of User Input • Anonymous FTP should allow access to files selectively. • One implementation parsed the file name. • Assume /pub/acc is an allowed directory. • Request: get /pub/acc/../../../etc/passwd

  4. Beware of User Input • This implementation only parsed the first part of the string. • Decided access is OK • get /pub/acc/../../../etc/passwd • Allowed access to any file. • Took several versions before the security breach was firmly patched.

  5. Morale: • Don’t reinvent the wheel. • Other implementations used a sandbox. • Community had learned how to get it right. • Parsing input is difficult. • Users have an incentive to be inventive. • ALL INPUT IS EVIL

  6. ALL INPUT IS EVIL • Canonical Representation Issues • Canonicalization: Translates name to standard representation. • Canonical Filenames • Napster Name Filtering. • Ordered to restrict access to certain songs. • Access was denied based on name of the song. • Users bypassed it with uncanonical song names • Deepest Chill  Deepest Chi11 • Candyman  AndymanCay (in pig latin)

  7. ALL INPUT IS EVIL • Mac OS X and Apache Vulnerability • HFS+ is case insensitive. • Apache uses text-based configuration files, that are case sensitive, to determine • Disallow access to directory scripts: <Location /scripts> order deny, allow deny from all </Location

  8. ALL INPUT IS EVIL • Denies user request • Allows user request http://www.mysite.org/scripts/index.html http://www.mysite.org/SCRIPTS/index.html

  9. ALL INPUT IS EVIL • Sun StarOffice /tmp directory symbolic link vulnerability • Symbolic link: file that points to another file. • Symbolic links do not share access rights with the file they point to.

  10. ALL INPUT IS EVIL • Sun StarOffice creates file /tmp/soffice.tmp with 0777 access mask. • Attacker links /tmp/soffice.tmp to /etc/passwd. • Root runs StarOffice • Permissions on /etc/passwd would get changed to 0777.

  11. Canonicalization Issues • Subsystems cooperate. • First subsystem does not canonicalize input in the way the second one does.

  12. Canonicalization Issues • Common when software make decisions on file names • 8.3 representation of file names • IIS looks at extensions. • Request to ***.asp::$DATA is routed to asp.dll. But this is a NTFS stream, that sends the ASP source code to the user. • Trailing dots or slashes • “secretFile.doc.” is same as “secretFile.doc” for windows.

  13. Canonicalization Issues • \\?\temp\myfile is the same as \temp\myfile • Directory traversal ../ • AOL 5.0 parental controls: • Bypass restriction on URL by adding period to file name. • Secure IIS verifies incoming and outgoing data • Use hexcode: %64elete instead of delete for key words. • Use “%2e%2e/” for “../” • Two canonalization issues in Security Software!

  14. Canonicalization Issues • Lines with carriage returns: • Assume logging of file access: • Attacker accesses file: • Log entry: 111.11.11.11 Mike 2004-02-19 13:02:12 file.txt file.txt\r\n127.0.0.1\tTom2004-02-19\t13:02:12\tsecret.doc 111.11.11.11 Mike 2004-02-19 13:02:12 file.txt 127.0.0. 1 Tom 2004-02-19 13:02:12 secret.doc

  15. Canonicalization Issues • Escaping: Many ways to represent a character • US-ASCII • Hexadecimal escape codes • UTF-8 variable width encoding • UCS-2 Unicode encoding • HTML escape codes • Double Escaping

  16. Canonicalization Issues • Homograph Attacks • Characters look the same, but are not • Latin letter “o” • Cyrillic character “o” (U+043E)

  17. Morale • Software should not make decisions based on names. • If it has do, enforce name restrictions • Don’t trust relative paths.

  18. Data Base Inputs • Don’t trust the user. • Data base access over the web lead to execution of sql code. • string sql = “select * from client where name = ‘” + name + “’” • Variable name provided by user • If name is Schwarz, this executes • string sql = “select * from client where name = ‘schwarz’”

  19. Data Base Inputs • User enters: • Schwarz’ or 1=1 - - • The sql statement becomes • string sql = “select * from client where name = ‘schwarz’ or 1=1 - -” • Selects all clients • - - SQL comment, comments out everything behind.

  20. Buffer Overflow Attacks • Stack: push and pop

  21. Buffer Overflow Attacks • Memory used by a program is split into segments. • Data segment – global program variables • BSS segment – static program variables • Heap – dynamic program variables • Stack – procedure call data and local variables

  22. Buffer Overflow Attack int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { foo(argv[1]); return 0; } void foo(const char* input) { char buf[10]; printf("Hello World\n"); }

  23. Buffer Overflow Attack int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { foo(argv[1]); return 0;} void foo(const char* input) { char buf[10]; printf("Hello World\n"); }

  24. Buffer Overflow Attack • Works by overwriting the return address to jump somewhere else.

  25. Buffer Overflow Attack #pragma check_stack(off) #include <string.h> #include <stdio.h> void foo(const char* input) { char buf[10]; printf("My stack looks like:\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n\n"); strcpy(buf, input); printf("%s\n", buf); printf("Now the stack looks like:\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n\n"); }

  26. Buffer Overflow Attack void bar(void) { printf("Augh! I've been hacked!\n"); }

  27. Buffer Overflow Attack int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { printf("Address of foo = %p\n", foo); printf("Address of bar = %p\n", bar); if (argc != 2) { printf("Please supply a string as an argument!\n"); return -1; } foo(argv[1]); return 0; }

  28. Buffer Overflow Attack Chapter05>stackoverrun.exe Hello Address of foo = 00401000 Address of bar = 00401050 My stack looks like: 00000000 00000A28 7FFDF000 0012FEE4 004010BB 0032154D Hello Now the stack looks like: 6C6C6548 0000006F 7FFDF000 0012FEE4 004010BB 0032154D

  29. Buffer Overflow Attack Chapter05>stackoverrun.exe Hello Address of foo = 00401000 Address of bar = 00401050 My stack looks like: 00000000 00000A28 7FFDF000 0012FEE4 004010BB 0032154D Hello Now the stack looks like: 6C6C6548 0000006F 7FFDF000 0012FEE4 004010BB 0032154D

  30. Buffer Overflow Attack

  31. Buffer Overflow Attack • If we overflow the buffer, then we overwrite the return address. • If we overwrite the return address, then (mostly), the memory location executed after the return does not belong to the program. • Segmentation Fault. • O.K., now we know how to write programs that crash!!!!!!!!

  32. Buffer Overflow Attack • By looking at the program and its output, we can write the address of bar into the return address. • This will cause the execution to go to bar.

  33. Buffer Overflow Attack Address of Bar

  34. Buffer Overflow Attack

  35. Buffer Overflow Attack • This is fun, but useless. • Real attack: overwrite return address so that code execution jumps into the input given by attacker.

  36. Buffer Overflow Attack • To protect against signatures, structure input • Varying stuff such as NOP sled • execve(/bin/sh) (gives new shell with program privileges in UNIX) • Pointer to execve statement. • This pointer overwrites the return address.

  37. Buffer Overflow Attack • Finding vulnerabilities • Script-kiddies scan target with automated tool. • Tool creator has detailed analysis of vulnerabilities. • Look for strcpy, gets, getws, memcpy memmove, scanf, … • Alternatively, just cram the application until it crashes. • Crash used to give you locations of registers.

  38. Buffer Overflow Attack • Example: Cram in lots of input of As. • Program crashes, EIP has value 41414141. • Sign of buffer overflow. • Now try to feed more specific input.

  39. Buffer Overflow Attack

  40. Buffer Overflow Attack • Attack signature can be used by IDS. • Vary the NOP commands. • Many alternatives.

  41. Buffer Overflow Attack • Protection • Make stack non-executable. • Use canary birds.

  42. Buffer Overflow Attack • Stack Guard • MS Visual Studio use canaries.

  43. Buffer Overflow Attack • (Used to) Happen a lot: • Most frequent vulnerability according to CERT • MS Outlook Vcard: Virtual business card buffer overflow vulnerability. • IIS 5 • Internet Printing Protocol

  44. Heap Overflow Attack • These protections do not apply to heaps, where dynamically allocated memory resides. • Some of this memory contains the addresses of functions that are going to be called. • Harder to find, harder to protect against.

  45. Remember: People attack computer systems because they can.

  46. Buffer Overflow Details • This function just mismanages the stack: int main ( int argc, char* argv[]) { char buffer[500]; strcpy(buffer, argv[1]); return 0; }

  47. Buffer Overflow Attack Details • Assume that this program is a suid root program: $ sudo chown root vuln $ sudo chmod +s vuln $ ls –l vuln -rwsr-sr-x 1 root linuxUser 4934 May

  48. Buffer Overflow Attack Details • We need three ingredients to break this code: • NOP sled • Shell-code • Assembly language code that spawns a shell • Return address (into the beginning of the overflowing buffer) • Need to guess approximate location of the buffer • Use current stack pointer to estimate beginning of buffer

  49. Buffer Overflow Attack Details • Put shell code into a file (called shellcode) • Use Perl scripting to provide input. • *nix example: • $ ./vuln ‘perl –e `print “\x90”x202;``cat shellcode` `perl –e print “\x78\xf9\xff\xbf”x88 • For this to work, the return address must be correctly aligned on a word boundary • In this case, the shell code has 42B. • NOP sled + shell code = 244B = 61 words, which leads to correct alignment. • (Using the ` character (under tilde) gives command substitution, we thus provide ./vuln with the correct parameters.)

  50. Buffer Overflow Attack Details • In the previous example, the buffer was big enough to contain the nop sled, the shell code and a bunch of return addresses. • If the buffer is small, we can use environmental variables.