Bell Work: • Homework Quiz • Video Clip: War to end all Wars(4 min) • 10:41-14:40
Russian Revolution In March 1917, a revolution ignites after period of worker unrest and Russian failure in WWI
Objective • Analyze the Russian Revolution by examining • The fall of the Czarist regime
Background to Revolution • Russia enters WWI un-prepared • No military technology • Can’t produce weapons/no adequate supplies • Czar Nicholas • no military experience or knowledge • By 1917 • the people have NO will left to fight • Lost 2 million soldiers 1914 - 1916 • 4 - 6 million soldiers injured or captured
Background to Revolution • Role of Czar Nicholas • Bad leader • People upset • WWI not going well • Nicholas II goes to the eastern front • leaves the czarina in charge • Alexandra made important decisions in Nicholas’ absence • What is wrong with this?
Nicholas and family Many hated Alexandra, his German wife. During the war she was accused of being a spy.
Background to Revolution • Rasputin intervenes • Gained Alexandra’s trust through Alexei had hemophilia • Impairs body's ability to control blood clotting • said he had magical powers and could heal her son • Had the power behind the throne • People assassinated Rasputin • Poisoned, shot him 4 times, clubbed him, bound him, and threw him in the water and drowned him
Rasputin fun facts • 1914: Rasputin was visiting his family. He was suddenly attacked by a woman named Khionia Guseva. Guseva part of a support group for women who had been hurt by Rasputin • She cut him across the stomach, causing his entrails to spill out, at which point she yelled, “I have killed the Antichrist!” • Rasputin, however, was not such an easy man to kill, and after extensive surgery survived the attempt.
2yrs later, another planned attempt was made on his life – un-successful. A group of nobles decided that Rasputin was far too dangerous to live, and invited him to a fictional get-together for friends of Princess Alexandrovna. There, they served him cakes and red wine laced with massive amounts of cyanide. • Rasputin’s Condition: poisoned • Supposedly, enough cyanide to kill 5men, but Rasputin was completely unaffected. Later, his daughter Maria would suggest that he had not eaten them at all, avoided sugary foods. Some believed him immune to poison entirely, having taken small doses for years to build up immunity.
Regardless, un-hurt. • Dinner party director (Yusupov) became concerned that he was not dying quickly enough. If died too late in evening, no time to hide the body. • Went downstairs & shot him in the back with a pistol. Rasputin hit the ground, unmoving. • Rasputin’s Condition: poisoned, shot
Later, Yusupov returned to the residence to retrieve his coat & check on the body. When entered the room, Rasputin still unconscious, but suddenly opened his eyes, lunging at Yusupov and whispering, “you bad boy” as he tried to strangle him. The other nobles ran into the room, firing pistols at Rasputin. He was hit three more times, and fell once more. • Rasputin’s Condition: poisoned, shot (four times) • Rasputin was still breathing. What’s more, he was attempting to stand up. It seemed poison and bullets could not stop him, so the men clubbed him, beating him horribly. • Rasputin’s Condition: poisoned, shot (four times), clubbed
Rasputin’s body tied up, rolled into a carpet & tossed into an icy river. Remarkably, upon hitting the icy water he struggled, breaking his bonds and escaping from the carpet. Despite all this, he was still alive. He clawed feverishly at the ice, but drowned in the river. • Rasputin’s Final Condition: poisoned, shot (four times), clubbed, hypothermia, drowned • It was confirmed in his autopsy that he had indeed been poisoned, and that he shouldn’t have survived that alone. There was also water in his lungs, confirming the story that he had been breathing in the water, and his death was ultimately ruled a drowning.
Royal family lived a life of luxury while poverty plagued most Russian people Faberge eggs given as Easter presents
The March Revolution • Working-class women led “peace & bread” strike • Bread had been rationed for war effort • Bread prices increased dramatically • Factories went on strike and closed down for 2 days • Alexandra alerts Nicholas • “This is a hooligan movement” • Orders soldiers to fire into the crowd to disperse the women • Soldiers refused and some joined
Provisional Gov’t • The Duma – Russian law making body • Forced Nicholas to step down – “abdicate” • Est. a “provisional” gov’t • Ended the 300 year Romanov dynasty
The czar is arrested in 1917 and his family is put on house arrest The royal family must do their own work
To Do: • Look over your WWI Test • Correct any questions that are marked wrong • Check for any mistakes • Scantron • Incorrect grade, etc • Have any questions ready to ask • No Homework
To Do: skip • Reading: Vladimir Lenin • Read the questions • Highlight or underline the answers in the reading
Bell Work: • Exit Slip #1: Background to Revolution • You can use your notes from the last class • What is Lenin saying about freedom? • While the State exists there can be no freedom; when there is freedom there will be no State. • Lenin
From Czars to Communists Lenin and Bolsheviks gained control, and ended up overthrowing the provisional government
Objective: • Analyze the Russian Revolution by examining • Lenin and the rise of the Communists in Russia
Alexander Kerensky becomes the leader of the provisional gov’t • Makes fatal mistake: tries to cont. the war to maintain honor • Why was this a mistake?
Vladimir Lenin Gains Power • Believed in a violent overthrow (Marx- Communism) • While in exile • planned an overthrow with the Bolsheviks • the provisional government was being established • not very strong • Gained power: • Encouraged Bolsheviks to gain control of soviets • How? See next slide. • Germany helped Lenin back to Russia • instigate a revolution
Provisional Government • Soviets • Council made up of representatives from soldiers & workers • Mostly socialists • Bolsheviks will play a big role • What are they trying to do?
Bolsheviks: Wanted? LPB • Wanted peasants’ land back • Evenly distributed land • Wanted an end to war • Wanted control by the people • Wanted soviets to replace provisional government Lenin’s slogan Land, Peace, Bread
Bolsheviks seize power • Party grew from 50,000 to 240,000 • Bolsheviks in good position to claim power • In the name of the soviets
Overthrow of the Provisional Government • Nov. 6th Bolsheviks Seize Power : • Seized the Winter Palace (provisional government) • Gov’t collapsed w/little bloodshed • Lenin Takes over??? • Lenin gave power to Congress of Soviets • Made himself the leader of a main council in Congress • Renamed themselves --- Communists • Promised peace – not an easy task
Treaty of Brest-Litovisk • He signed the Treaty • Gave up a lot of land • eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces • To his critics: Mistake? • Lenin said land was not a concern • socialist revolution will go beyond borders • He promised peace • but a civil war broke out
To Do • Video: • History’s Turning Points – The Russian Revolution • First 10-12 min (#1-5) • No Homework
Bell Work: • Go over Exit Slip #1 • Exit Slip #2: From Czars to Communists • Be ready to answer the following questions: • What is a civil war? • Why are civil wars fought? • List 3 examples of civil wars in history?
Civil War in Russia Reds verses Whites
Objective: • Analyze the Russian Revolution by examining • The civil war and triumph of the Communists
Bolshevik (communist) party “Reds” Get rid of the monarchy Revolution Anti-Lenin - “Whites” Liberals Supported the czar wanted constitutional monarchy Socialists Wanted a socialist state wanted more democratic leaders Civil War in Russia: ViewsWhat is the issue? VS
Civil War • Allies help the socialists • they did not want communism to spread • Gave material and supplies to anti-Communist supporters (“White”) • “Red Army” fought back
Civil War • Czar was even victim to war • family was held prisoner • Lenin orders the murder of the royal family • They were moved to a mining town in the Urals were they were killed and buried in a mine shaft
Civil War By 1921 • Communists were in total control • Russia was centralized state with one party in control • Very anti-Allies because they had helped the Whites
Red Army was well-disciplined because of Trotsky Executed anyone who deserted or disobeyed orders 2. Disunity of anti-Communist forces Different political issues Some Czar back Some democratic government Communists had ONE plan Triumph of the CommunistsReasons why Lenin succeed against the odds 3. Patriotism brought to new level • No one liked the idea of foreign militaries in their country • revolt against foreign armies on their soil
To Do: • Exit Slip #3: Answer together • Review: Quiz Tomorrow • Finish Video: start at 11 minutes (#6) • Rasputin Song/Video