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Differentiation Beginning the Journey

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  1. DifferentiationBeginningthe Journey Theresa Hinkle NMSA 2009

  2. Today’s Agenda • Differentiation • What is it? • Why should we implement it? • What are some strategies I can implement to begin the journey? • What is the role of assessment in differentiation?

  3. What is Differentiation? • A teacher’s response to learner needs • The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences • Instruction that appeals to students’ differences

  4. Differentiation is… but isn’t… Essential elements -choice -addresses student differences -modification of process, product or content -based on student’s readiness, interests, and learning profile Does not include -emphasis on “covering” the curriculum -assessment just to see “who got it” -domination by whole class activity -mostly single option assignments Examples -compacting -learning contracts -tiered assignment - Non-examples -giving “extra” work to some -grading some “harder” than others -giving more difficult work to some without adjusting instruction

  5. Thebiggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way. ~ Howard Gardner

  6. Why should we differentiate? • All students learn differently. • One size doesn’t fit all. • Students learn best when they are actively engaged, allowed choice, and involved in the decision making process. • To learn, students must experience appropriate levels of challenge. • “Instruction begins where the students are, not at the front of the curriculum guide.” How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Carol Ann Tomlinson. How the Brain Learns. C.A. Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch

  7. RAPID ROBIN The “Dreaded Early Finisher”

  8. “I’m Not Finished” Freddie “It takes him an hour-and-a-half to watch 60 Minutes.”

  9. Teaching with student variance in mind yields positive results. (Tomlinson, 2003)

  10. Teachers Can Differentiate Content Process Product According to Students’ Interest Learning Profile Readiness Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)

  11. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Original Revised Knowledge Remembering Comprehension Understanding Application Applying Analysis Analyzing Synthesis Evaluating Evaluation Creating

  12. Differentiating Process and Product • Learning contracts • Tiered assignments • RAFT writing assignments • Choice boards • Interactive journals and notebooks • Compacting • Different levels of questioning

  13. The “Equalizer” 5.Smaller Leap 1.Foundational Transformational Greater Leap 6.More Structured More Open 2.Concrete Abstract 7.Clearly Defined Problems Fuzzy Problems 3.Simple Complex 8.Less Independence Greater Independence 4.Fewer Facets Multi-facets 9.Slower Quicker

  14. Table Talk What are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?

  15. Ongoing Assessment: The Key to A Differentiated Classroom

  16. Balanced Assessment System “To maximize student success, assessment must be seen as an instructional tool for use while learning is occurring, and as an accountability tool to determine if learning has occurred. Because both purposes are important, they must be in balance.” From Balanced Assessment: The Key to Accountability and Improved Student Learning, NEA (2003)

  17. Experts tell us… “Assessment should promote learning, not simply measure it.” Jay McTighe

  18. Two Views of Assessment -- Assessment is for: Gate keeping Judging Right Answer Control Comparison to others Use with single activities Assessment is for: Nurturing Guiding Self-Reflection Information Comparison to standard Use over multiple activities

  19. “Assessment should always have more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.” Carol Tomlinson

  20. WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS LEARNING PROFILE INTEREST • Areas of Strength • and Weakness • Work Preferences • Self Awareness • Interest Surveys • Interest Centers • Self-Selection Content Knowledge Skills Concepts

  21. When Do You Assess? Most teachers assess students at the end of an instructional unit or sequence. When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit. The next slide suggests a diagnostic continuum for ongoing assessment.

  22. On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum Preassessment (Finding Out) Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure)

  23. Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure) Preassessment (Finding Out) On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum Feedback and Goal Setting Pre-test Inventory KWL Checklist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning Conference Exit Card Peer evaluation Portfolio Check Quiz Observation Journal Entry Talkaround Self-evaluation Questioning Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonstration Portfolio Review

  24. ONGOING ASSESSMENT Some teachers talk about--- LEARNING Some teachers talk about--- GRADES VS. • Can these two coexist peacefully? • Should one receive emphasis over the other?

  25. Preassessment Is... • Any method, strategy or process used to determine a • student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to • plan for appropriate instruction. • Preassessment: • provides data that can determine options for students to • to take in information, construct meaning, and to • demonstrate understanding of new information • helps teachers anticipate differences before planning • challenging and respectful learning experiences • allows teachers to meet students where they are

  26. Pre-assessment Teacher prepared pre-test KWL Charts /Graphic Organizers Writing Prompts/Samples Guess Box Student demonstrations and discussions Student products and work samples Show of hands/EPR Every Pupil Response Standardized Tests Data Teacher observation/Checklist

  27. Formative Assessment Is... • A process of accumulating information about a student’s • progress to help make instructional decisions that will • improve his/her understandings and achievement levels. • Formative Assessment: • depicts student’s life as a learner • used to make instructional adjustments • alerts the teacher about student misconceptions • “early warning signal” • allows students to build on previous experiences • provides regular feedback • provides evidence of progress • aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes

  28. Assessment During Learning • Thumbs Up • Fist of Five • 3-2-1 Cards • Dry erase slates • Portfolios • Artistic response • Oral presentations • Writings –RAFT • Interactive Notebooks

  29. Experts tell us… “Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended outcomes.” CCSSO FAST SCASS

  30. “Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.” Carol Tomlinson

  31. Summative Assessment Is... • A means to determine a student’s mastery and • understanding of information, skills, concepts, or • processes. • Summative Assessment: • should reflect formative assessments that precede it • should match material taught • may determine student’s exit achievement • may be tied to a final decision, grade or report • should align with instructional/curricular outcomes • may be a form of alternative assessment

  32. Understanding the Target • What knowledge will students need to demonstrate the intended learning? • What patterns of reasoning will they need to master? • What skills are required, if any? • What product development capabilities must they acquire, if any?

  33. Learning Targets Knowledge = the facts and concepts we want student to know Reasoning = student use what they know to reason and solve problems Skills = students use their knowledge and reasoning to act skillfully Products = students use their knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a concrete product Dispositions = students’ attitudes about school and learning.

  34. Learning Targets for Today • Knowledge • Reasoning • Skills • Products • Dispositions

  35. Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction From • Products for teacher / grading • No student work displayed • Identical, imitative products To • Products for real events / audience • High quality / all students work displayed • Varied and original products

  36. Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction From • Feedback = scores or grades • Seen / scored only by teacher • Teacher grade book • Standards set during grading To • Substantive, varied, formative feedback • Public displays and performances • Student-maintained portfolios, assessments • Standards co-developed with students

  37. Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction From • Feedback = scores or grades • Seen / scored only by teacher • Teacher grade book • Standards set during grading To • Substantive, varied, formative feedback • Public displays and performances • Student-maintained portfolios, assessments • Standards co-developed with students

  38. Principles of Assessment in Differentiated Classroom • Assessment drives instruction. Assessment provides information to help the teacher plan next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole. • Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. • Assessment is varied, frequent, and relevant to the learner

  39. Differentiation Strategies

  40. Using AnchorActivities

  41. Anchor Activities • Anchor activitiesare ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit, a grading period or longer.

  42. Anchor Activities: Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”. Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction. Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals.

  43. ANCHOR ACTIVITIES Can be • used in any subject • whole class assignments • small group or individual assignments • tiered to meet the needs of different readiness levels • interdisciplinary for use across content areas or teams

  44. ANCHOR ACTIVITIES Work best: • when expectations are clear and the tasks are taught and practiced prior to use. • when students are held accountable for on task behavior and/or task completion.

  45. Planning for Anchor Activities Subject/Content Area: Name and description of anchor activity: How will activity be introduced to students? How will the activity be managed and monitored? - Points - Percentage of Final Grade - Rubric - Portfolio Check - Checklist - Teacher/Student Conference - Random Check - Peer Review - On Task Behaviors - Other _______________

  46. Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups 1 Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. 2 Flip-Flop Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. 3 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity.

  47. Some Anchor Activities • “Brain Busters” • Learning Packets • Activity Box • Learning/Interest Centers • Vocabulary Work • Accelerated Reader • Investigations • Test Practice Activities • Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or Activities • Listening Stations • Research Questions or Projects • Commercial Kits and Materials • Journals or Learning Logs • Silent Reading (Content Related?)

  48. TIERED INSTRUCTION A Different Spin on an Old Idea SOURCE: based on work by Carol Ann Tomlinson

  49. What is Tiered Instruction? By keeping the focus of the activity the same, but providing routes of access at varying degrees of difficulty, the teacher maximizes the likelihood that: 1) each student comes away with pivotal skills & understandings 2) each student is appropriately challenged Teachers use tiered activities so that all students focus on essential understandings and skills but at different levelsof complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness.